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r 1 











Size, 8 X 6.3. 

This interesting and valuable riiLC is oi antique 
Tab)"!/ weave, of finely l")len(lec.l colors anil rare design. 
Il represents the indiviviual squares on the. lloor of a 
nic^sque, f^ach <.)ne of which nia\' be oct.:epied by a 
worshipper kneeling in pra\'er. Rugs with a single 
design of tliis kind are usual, ])Ut a grouj.jing of many 
spaces in one rug is rare, b'ornis of the Tree of Life 
are rejjresented in different ])an(ls, and the border is 
very rich and handsome. The wenvc! is fine» the 
texture; soft and firm. The rich and s:.'lendid hues of 
the various panels are S(» soft in ton'.' tliat, while there 
are sevi-:r;d different colors in luxtaposicion. ihciv hav(^ 
been arrimci'ed so dtiftlv and artisticallv that the har- 
monious e]fv.:ct is perfect. It is impossible to »lescribe 
in woi"ds the mellow richness and rare art disjdayed in 
this uni(pie fabric of the loom. 

Rtproduceti i/s i curtesy c^/ A/f-.^s.-s. J, A. I'iHitinc ij: ev.., Kt:u York. 






A. JFfanc^iook^f or 
Ready Reference 










A. C. McClurg 8c Co. 





I I 

' I 

> I 

1 ^Ol0 i 



Introduction xv-xvi 

Section I. History and Details of Rug- Weaving i 
Section II. Rug- Weaving in Egypt, Persia, and 

Turkey 35 

Section III. Rug- Weaving in India, Afghanistan, 

Beluchistan, Turkoman, and Cau- 
casus . • .61 

Section IV. Polish and Miscellaneous Oriental 

Rugs 83 

Section V. Rug- Weaving in the Occident, Great 

Britain, and the United States . loi 
Section VI. Miscellaneous Information . . .118 

Bibliography 149 

Index 153 


Plate I. 
Plate II. 
Plate III. 
Plate IV. 
Plate V. 
Plate VI. 
Plate VII. 
Plate VIII. 
Plate IX. 
Plate X. 
Plate XI. 
Plate XII. 
Plate XIII. 
Plate XIV. 
Plate XV. 
Plate XVI. 
Plate XVII. 
Plate XVIII. 
Plate XIX. 
Plate XX. 


Antique Tabriz . . . Frontispiece 

Soumak 12 

Shiraz 16 

Kazak 20 

Camel Hair Mat from Hamadan 24 

Old Persian 28 

Sarakhs 32 

Samarkand 38 

Sinna 42 

Khorassan 46 

Old Ghiordes Prayer Rug . . 50 

Khilim 54 

Arabian 58 

Indian Prayer Rug .... 64 

Afghanistan 70 

Tekke Turkoman 74 

Daghestan 78 

Old Persian Silk Rug ... 86 

Antique Chinese Wool Rug . . 90 

Old Kirman 94 

List of Illustrations 

Plate XXI. 
Plate XXII. 
Plate XXIII. 
Plate XXIV. 
Plate XXV. 
Plate XXVI. 

Plate XXVII. 
Plate XXVIII. 
Plate XXIX. 
Plate XXX. 
Plate XXXI. 


Old Anatolian Prayer Rug . 


Navajo Blanket .... 
Turkish Loom and Weavers 
Vats for Washing and Dyeing 

Wool .... 
Indian Loom and Weavers 


Indian Rug Designers . 
Wool Drying after Dyeing 
Rugs being Transported 





WHILE there is a singular lack of books in the 
English language treating directly of Rugs, — a theme 
which is so intensely interesting to buyers, — it is note- 
worthy that under the category of Oriental Carpets 
are to be found a few volumes of interest. These, 
however, are too rare and expensive for the general 
reader. For this reason I have undertaken to present 
in a concise form certain facts that may enable a 
novice to appreciate the beauty and interest attaching 
to rugs, and assist a prospective purchaser in judging 
of the merits of any particular rug he may desire to 

For much valuable information on the subject I 
am indebted to publications which are referred to in 
my Bibliography, to correspondence with Ministers 
to Oriental countries and Consuls residing therein, 
to interviews with rug dealers in various cities, and 
to certain learned Americans, Armenians, Greeks, 
Syrians and Turks. It has also been my good fortune 
to be intrusted, for purposes of description and re- 


production, with many beautiful and rare rugs, from 

owners who cherish them as treasures. These true 

rug-lovers have generously contributed to whatever 

there may be of interest in this book. 

R. B. H. 
New York City^ . 

August 7, /p07. 






The History 

TN the house beautiful, rugs impart richness and 
•*^ represent refinement. Their manufacture was one 
of the earliest incentives for the blending of colors 
in such harmony as to please the eye and satisfy the 
mind ; consequently, it is one of the most important 
of the industrial arts. Since the days when ancient 
peoples first lay down to sleep wrapped in the skins of 
animals, the human intelligence has quickened, and as 
the race has become more civilized, rugs have gradually 
taken the place of skins. Thus began the industry of 
rug-weaving, and it has grown to such an extent that it 
is now of world-wide importance. 

The word Rug is used in this volume in the follow- 
ing sense : ^*A covering for the floor ; a mat, usually 
oblong or square, and woven in one piece. Rugs, 
especially those of Oriental make, often show rich 

4 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

designs and elaborate worl^manship, and are hence 
sometimes used for hangings. " In several books rugs 
and carpets are referred to as identical. In fact most 
written information on rugs has been catalogued 
under the term carpets; and there seems to be good 
reason for assuming that the terms tapestries and 
carpets, as used in ancient times, were synonymous 
with the word rugs of the present day, for these 
were spread loosely on the floor without the aid of 

Historical references to spinning and to the 
weaving of tapestries date back to a very early period. 
An ancient Jewish legend states that Naamah, daughter 
of Lamech and sister of Tubal-Cain, was the inventor 
of the spinning of wool, and of the weaving of thread 
into cloth. 

On at least two of the wonderful rock-cut tombs 
of Beni-Hassan, in Egypt, — B.C. 28cx>26oo, — there 
are pictures of weavers at work. In one, women 
are filling a distaff with cotton, twisting it with a 
spindle into thread, and weaving this on an upright 
loom. Beside them is a man, evidently an overseer, 
watching the weavers and their work. The other 
wall painting represents a man weaving a checkered 
rug on a horizontal loom. Other monuments of 
ancient Egypt and of Mesopotamia bear witness that 

History of Rug- Weaving 5 

the manufacture of rugs dates a considerable time 
prior to 2400 B. c. 

At Thebes a fresco, dating 1700- 1000 b. c, 
represents three men weaving at an upright loom. A 
small rug, discovered in that city some time between 
the years 666 and 358 b. c, and now in the possession 
of Mr. Hay in England, is described by Sir J. Gardner 
Wilkinson as follows : ' * This rug is eleven inches 
long by nine broad. It is made like many carpets of 
the present day, with woollen threads on linen string. 
In the centre is the figure of a boy in white, with a 
goose above it, the hieroglyphic of 'child' upon a 
green ground, around which is a border composed of 
red, white, and blue lines. The remainder is yellow, 
with four white figures above and below, and one at 
each side, with blue outlines and red ornaments ; and 
the outer border is made up of red, white, and blue 
lines, with a fancy device projecting from it, with a 
triangular summit, which extends entirely round the 
edge of the rug. Its date is uncertain, but from the 
child, the combination of the colors, and ornamental 
border, I am inclined to think it really Egyptian, not 
of the Pharaonic, but of the Greek and Roman period. ' ' 
Dr. Samuel Birch, who edited the last edition of Wil- 
kinson's work, affirms that this is so. 

On the marbles of Nineveh is represented the 

6 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 


pectoral worn by Sardanapalus. It is an exact miniature 
of a Kurdish rug of modern times. The Tree of Life, the 
motive of most of the Persian rug designs, is in the centre, 
and the border is ornamented with rosettes and bars. 

Phoenician Art is intermediate between Egyptian and 
Assyrian. The color most prized in the art of Phoenicia 
was the rare and beautiful purple (properly crimson) 
dye used exclusively for the garments of royalty. For 
centuries the process of making this dye was lost, and 
even at the time of its highest fame it was familiar only 
to the maritime Canaanites, who procured the color 
from an animal juice of the murex, a shell-fish. The 
shell-fish and the dye were known to the ancients as 

When Cleopatra, the famous Queen of Egypt, went 
to meet Caesar for the first time, she knew that he 
would not allow her to enter his presence if recognized, 
and therefore she cleverly had herself carried into his 
palace wrapped in a rug of the finest texture. It may 
well be imagined that the imexpected disclosure of the 
charms of this subtle Egyptian shared largely in bring- 
ing the great Roman general into her toils. 

Besides biblical writers. Homer, iEschylus, Plautus, 
Metellus, Scipio, Horace, Pliny, Lucan, Josephus, 
Arrian, and Athenaeus all speak of rugs. For people 
interested in rugs the search for these allusions is a 
most fascinating occupation. 

History of Rug- Weaving 7 

The Egyptians bestowed the greatest care and 
patience upon the rugs they wove, as upon all else of 
their handiwork. They spread them before the images 
of their gods, and also on the ground for their sacred 
cattle to lie upon. They loved Nature intensely, and, 
like true lovers, they seemed to have reached her very 
heart, and they symbolized her works in their artistic 
designs. Even to this day many Oriental rugs have 
symbolic signs borrowed from the works of Nature. 

In design and color the rugs woven to-day in the 
Orient are similar to the Assyrian and Babylonian tex- 
tile fabrics of b. c. 1000-607 (Fall of Nineveh) and 538 
(Fall of Babylon). At that early period these textiles 
were used for awnings and floor coverings in the pal- 
aces of the Assyrian kings Sargon, Sennacherib, Esar- 
haddon and Sardanapalus. The designs on the stone 
slab from the palace of Koyunjik, Nineveh, and on the 
door-sill from the palace at Khorsabad, are probably 
copied from rugs. 

Beginning in Egypt and Chaldea, the manufacture 
of rugs was carried into Assyria, and then into Asia 
Minor. Ancient Egypto-Chaldean forms are occasion- 
ally seen in modern rugs, but usually in a modified 
form. For a long time the industry of rug-weaving 
was supreme in the countries mentioned, but about 
B. c. 480 the Greeks especially arrived at a high state of 

S Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

perfection in this art. Later, it was corrupted by the 
Byzantine (Lower Roman) influence. In the seventh 
and eighth centuries the Saracens came into power in 
the Sassanian Persian Empire and in the African and 
Syrian provinces. These Saracens believed that all 
labor tended to the glory of God, and on their western 
campaigns they carried rug manufacture into Sicily, 
Spain, France, and Italy ; and thus it was introduced 
throughout Europe. It should he here noted that the 
name Saracen was given by the later Romans and 
Greeks to certain of the nomadic tribes on the Syrian 
borders of the Roman Empire. After the introduction 
of Mohammedanism they were called Arabs. 

From earliest times it has been the custom in the 
East to hang rugs on graves. About the vault of the 
mosque at Hebron where the patriarchs Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob are said to be buried, rugs are hung 
at the present day. 

During times of ^^nA fetes in Europe, when house 
decoration is done with lavishness, people, to make 
their homes more attractive, drape with beautiful rugs 
the balconies, the loggias, and the front walls of build- 
ings. The richness and color of these rugs blend har- 
moniously with flags and other emblems, producing an 
effect of great magnificence and splendor. 

History of Rug-Weaving 9 

When we see the exquisite loom work that has 
been wrought in the Orient, we sometimes wonder 
how the weavers have achieved such success, for they 
are destitute of what we call education, and they dwell 
amid the humblest surroundings. But nature has 
been their instructor, and the rare shadings and varied 
designs of the rugs are never more wonderful than are 
the many forms and hues of the Natural World, The. 
weavers have intuitively grasped what is correct in 
color from the wori^s of nature surrounding them, and 
we reap the benefit in the rich specimens of their art 
which they export. 

The number of Orientals engaged in the manufac- 
ture of rugs in the United States is increasing. It is 
now not an uncommon sight to see these weavers at 
work before the loom in the show windows of the rug- 
importing establishments of the larger cities. These 
patient toilers of the East delight in subdued color- 
ings and artistic designs; and without a doubt many a 
story is woven in with the threads that go to form the 
fabric, many a song of joy, many a dirge of woe and 

The increasing use of polished hard wood and 
yellow pine floors and mosaic work, even in buildings 
of moderate cost, is displacing the use of cheap 
flooring, which could be covered satisfactorily only with 

lo Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

woven carpets or matting. This has enormously in- 
creased the demand for nigs ; and the selection of 
them affords a much wider range for the exercise of 
personal taste and discrimination in securing an article 
not only of greater artistic merit, but of greater 


Details of Rug-Weaving ^ ^ 

The Loom and Its Work 

The hand loom is Oriental; the power loom Occi- 
dental. The former adds much to the fame of the 
Orient The exquisite fabrics it produces have made it 
world-renowned, and although it is simple in structure, 
its products show careful and finished labor. Hand 
looms in all Oriental countries are similar, and are 
to-day almost as imperfectly developed as when used 
by the ancient Egyptians. To weave their mats, the 
ancient Egyptians took the coarse fibre of the papyrus 
and, with the help of pegs, stretched it between two 
poles which were fastened in the ground. Two bars 
were placed in between them, the threads of the warp 
serving to keep them apart The woof thread was 
passed through and pressed down tightly a number of 
times with a bent piece of wood. 

The loom now generally used in the Orient is made 
by fastening two poles perpendicularly in the ground 
to a sufficient depth, leaving above ground as much of 
each pole as equals in length the desired rug. This 
framework supports two horizontal rollers, the warp 

" Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

threads being wound around the upper, while the ends 
are fastened to the lower ; at this the weaving is begun, 
and on it the rug is rolled while in process of construc- 
tion. To the warp threads of fine linen or cotton the 
weavers tie the tufts of worsted that form the pile. 
This worsted, which has been dyed previously, hangs 
over their heads in balls. When a row of knots is 
finished, it is pressed down to the underlying weft by 
a long and heavy comb with metal teeth. Then the 
tufts are clipped close with shears, to make the pile. 
In the finer rugs there are seldom more than two, or at 
the most three, threads between every two rows of 
knots, but in the coarser kinds there are more threads. 
In many districts every family possesses a loom, and 
it is generally small enough to be carried from place 
to place. 

Sir George C. Birdwood has seen the web in the 
horizontal loom in Western India kept stretched by 
being wrapped, as worked, round the body of the 
weaver. In some instances the spinners make thread 
from the cotton wool by using the left hand as a distaff, 
and the right one as a spindle. In other cotton rugs 
which he has seen, the warp threads were placed hori- 
zontally and the loom was without treadles and reed. 
The weft threads were thrown across by the weaver 
and brought together with a small hand comb. The 

Size, 4. 1 1 X 3. 1. 

The fine weaving of this Soumak mat and its beauti- 
ful coloring are especially admirable. The texture is 
very firm, the threads being drawn tight. On a field 
which is a choice shade of blue* rest geometrical forms, 
each one of which has a ground of terra cotta, pale green, 
or soft yellow, and is ornamented with rich blue, ivory, 
or a light shade of terra cotta. y\ll are outlined with 
black. The hook design is noticed in differrnt parts of 
the rug, and especially in the border. The artistic effect 
of this bit of weaving is most oleasin<^. 

Rtproductd hs courtesy of Mr, IViU 7. Davh^ Chicago. 

Details of Rug- Weaving ^3 

same style of loom, arranged vertically, is that on 
which some of the richly figured cotton rugs from the 
Deccan are woven. 

In some parts of Turkey there are German factories 
that have adopted some of the native methods ; but as 
the majority of Turkish rugs are apt to be crooked, 
frames that weave them straight are now imported 
from Germany. 

Mrs. Isabella Bird Bishop describes a tribe of peo- 
ple living at Biratori, on the Island of Yezo, Japan, and 
bearing the name of Ainos, whose women employ their 
time in weaving mats. Their loom is certainly the most 
primitive arrangement A comb-like frame, through 
which the threads pass, rests on the ankles of the 
weaver. There is a heavy hook fastened in the ground 
or floor, and to this the threads at the far end of the 
web are sewed. A cord fastens the near end to the 
waist of the weaver, who by spinal rigidity supplies the 
necessary tension. As the work proceeds, she drags 
herself along nearer and nearer the hook. This is slow 
work, only about a foot being accomplished in a day. 
But as in other countries, the women' enjoy the neigh- 
borly chats that their work allows ; and often two or 
more will bring to the house of a neighbor their simple 
apparatus, and hanging the hooks to the roof or to a 
tree, will weave all day. 

H Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

The power looms of modern civilization are chiefly 
to be found in the United States and Great Britain, 
Philadelphia being the principal American centre, and 
Kidderminster, Wilton, Worcester, Rochdale, Halifax, 
Dewsbury and Durham, the English centres, Brussels 
and Scotland contain a number of such looms. In all 
Western countries Schools of Art furnish most of the 
designs, and have done much to improve taste. This 
can also be said of good colorists in their branch of 
this industry. 

Details of Rug- Weaving ^5 

The Weavers 

Rug- Weaving in the Orient is an industry that, until 
recent years, has been carried on almost exclusively by 
women and girls. From childhood to womanhood 
and on to old age, these weavers are at work. Girls 
of six years of age help their mothers, until they be- 
come experiened by long practice. Even ladies of rank 
and wealth weave rugs of fine quality for their own 
homes. In some districts, besides weaving for the 
market, girls weave one or two rugs for their dowry ; 
this purpose furnishes them with enough excitement to 
keep them interested in their work and ambitious to 
excel. Now that there is a greater demand for rugs, 
and not enough women to supply the demand, men and 
boys have come into the business, but generally only 
in places where there are large factories, and especially 
in the cities. This is noticeably the case in India, 
where boys from nine to fifteen years of age do much 
of the weaving. 

There are two classes of weavers, the sedentary and 
the nomadic. The former weave in their houses during 

i^ Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

the winter, and in their courtyards during the summer. 
The nomads spend the winter in mud villages, and in 
the summer go to the mountains with their flocks and 
live in tents made of goat's hair. The manner of life 
of the sedentary weaver works havoc with her constitu- 
tion even in her youth; and consequently one is not 
surprised at her frail appearance. In summer she is 
oppressed with heat as she sits before the frame, and in 
winter she is almost frozen, for she has to work in the 
open air in order to have sufficient light. Hers is not 
an easy life. It would be pleasant to believe that in her 
toil, which she carries on with wondrous patience and 
in the humblest surroundings, the conscientious weaver 
finds the same inward satisfaction that comes to the 
true artist elsewhere. 

The duties of the male portion of the family are to 
tend the flocks, shear the sheep, separate the various 
qualities of the wool into bundles, dye it, and make the 
framework for the rug. With the extension of the in- 
dustry, a class of workers has arisen whose sole task is 
to manipulate and dye the wool for use. The reason 
why men do not usually weave is that the occupation, 
besides not being a paying one, requires an amount of 
patience not within the powers of men accustomed to 
work out of doors. Nor is it a remunerative occupation. 
The reader, who is perhaps also a prospective rug-buyer^ 

Size, 4.3 X 7. 

The field of this rug- is marked with narrow perpen- 
diciihir stripes of soft yellows, rose, deep blues, and 
ivory. These mellow tones of color are all thickly 
studded with a line floral desitjn in contrasting^: shades. 
The palm leaf design, minute but distinct, is in pale 
Lfreen, with markin^-s of blue and rose. The: border 
stripes of tan, dark rich blue, and rose, are floral in 
effect. The rug is heavy, firm, and of fine weave. 
Fringed ends finish this beautiful examjjle of the Shiraz. 

Reproduced h couries\ of Mr. Will J Dtwisy Chicago. 


f'W'lW """T^' 

Details of Rug- Weaving ^7 

may be interested in the following calculation of the 
amount of labor bestowed upon a given piece of the 
best type, the cost of the materials, and its value when 
completed. A square foot of the best Persian rug is 
worth about ten dollars, and it takes a single weaver 
twenty-three days to complete this portion. This allows 
the weaver about forty-four cents per day for her wool 
and her labor; but as three-fourths of this amount goes 
to pay for the wool, only eleven cents per day is left for 
her labor. The wages of the producer of the inferior 
article are somewhat better. A square foot of an in- 
ferior rug is sold for about sixty cents, and the time 
required for weaving it is but two days, thus allowing 
the weaver thirty cents per day for her wool and labor. 
She uses inferior wool, washes but little of it, and pays 
only a nominal sum for a cheap dye. The framework 
of her loom costs comparatively little, as the rug it 
produces is from twenty to thirty times the size of the 
superior rug. Thus it appears that, in the long run, the 
inferior weaver is better paid than the one who fatigues 
her brain with her efforts to produce a rug of the best 
quality. On the other hand, the weaver of the superior 
fabric has advantages which the other has not. As a 
general rule, she weaves to order, and is paid for her 
work in advance. This prepayment is of great im- 
portance, considering the poverty of the weaver. The 

iS Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

situation of the weaver of the inferior article differs in 
diat she has to buy her wool, dye it, finish her rug, and 
then watch the market for buyers. 

The weavers live on the simplest fare ; bread, cheese, 
and a raw onion make an average meal. In some 
districts the weavers have to work in underground huts, 
for the air at the surface is so dry that the threads 
would lose all their elasticity out of doors. In these 
underground places the weavers produce enough moist- 
ure by keeping at hand utensils full of water. 

Although the business is conducted with the manu- 
facturer on a strictly commercial basis, it is very diffi- 
cult to induce the weavers to keep their appointments 
and finish a rug at the time it is promised. In India, 
for example, the weavers are very superstitious; and if 
a boy weaver be taken ill, the entire force on that loom 
will stop until he recover. If he die, the entire force 
of native weavers may be changed. This of course 
causes vexatious delay, not only of days, but often of 
weeks and months. 

Details of Rug- Weaving '9 

The Wool 

Sheep's wool, camel's hair, mohair from the Angora 
Goat, hair from the Yak and from the Thibetan Goat, 
are all used as the materials from which rugs are 
woven. In the spring the raw wool is generally taken 
to the nearest market, where it is cleaned, washed, and 
spun. The cleansing process is very necessary, as it 
affects in an important degree the quality of the ma- 
terial The wool is usually washed in running water by 
the men, and then sorted and cleansed a second time. 

Persia, Turkey, and India all produce wool, the two 
former countries in larger quantities than India, but 
some of the very finest wool comes from that part of 
India known as Kashmir. The celebrated Turfani wool 
comes from Chinese Thibet. It is very choice, and 
beautiful fabrics are woven from it. 

The pashim is the soft downy wool growing next 
the body of the goat In color it is white, dark gray, 
or drab; and of this many of the finest India rugs are 
woven. Large-tailed sheep are common in Kabul, 
Peshawar, and other districts ; these furnish wool 

20 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

from which many a rug is woven. It is possible that 
the very sheep watched over by the Shepherds of 
Judaea the night of our Savior's birth were reared 
partly for their wool, with a view to rug-weaving. 

The camel is useful not only as a beast of burden; 
its hair is woven into fabrics both fine and durable, 
chief of which are rugs, beautiful, much desired, and 
costly. The natural colors harmonize readily with the 
furnishings in most rooms, and the soft texture of the 
best ones is attractive. 

The process of carding is accomplished by means of 
a block with vertical pins in even rows close together. 
The wool is drawn through these many times, and then 
spun into yam. 

Size, 8.3 X 4, 1 o. 

This is an unusually fine specimen of a Kazak. Its 
softness, combined with its solidity, gives it force and 
beauty. On the wonderful rose field a scries of geo- 
metrical figures, five in number, are placed. Odd fig- 
ures, including stiff little animals, fill in the remaining 
field. Tlie wide border is composed of small diamonds, 
with varied forms of the hook design. The strength of 
the Cossacks is displayed in this hardy, forceful, and 
richly colored rug. 

Reproduced by courtesy of Mrs, Cyrus H. McCormick, Chicago, 




Details of Rug- Weaving 21 

The Quality 

The fineness of a rug depends largely upon the 
quality of the wool and the number of knots to the 
square foot. In one yard of the best made Persian 
rugs there are between twenty thousand and thirty 
thousand stitches made by hand. The wool must be of 
fine quality, but not too soft. It should be closely 
woven, and evenly cropped. A great deal depends 
upon the manipulation of the wool in the rough, and 
careful attention should be given to this particular. 

The quality of the wool is affected by whatever cir- 
cumstances affect the well-being of the sheep, and in a 
marked degree by climate. Hence there is a decided 
difference in the wools of various districts and sections 
of a country. It is a well-known fact that the wool 
produced in cold countries is soft and fine, while that 
of the warmer climates is, on the other hand, harder, 
firmer, and more lasting. Hard wool is easier for the 
weaver to handle, and the tufts can be cropped with 
more facility. It is partly owing to these facts that the 
rugs of the cold districts are most in demand. 

22 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

The fact that some rugs are so much better than 
others is a natural result of the superior skill of the 
makers. Weavers are like other workers, some doing 
perfect work, some indifferent, and others very poor. 
But the quality of the rugs offered for sale in this 
country depends also upon the knowledge and the con- 
science of the wholesale buyer at the place of manufac- 
ture. When the buyer for an importing establishment 
brings over quantities of rugs not all of which are 
artistic, the question may be asked : * ' Why do you not 
always select rugs that are beautiful? " He may reply 
that it is his business to get those that will sell, and 
that there is a great variety of taste in the customers 
for whom he is catering; or he may say that he buys a 
thousand rugs at a time, and does not see them individ- 
ually. It is in the retail shop that the final purchaser 
may pick and choose. 

The most famous rugs of the Orient have been se- 
lected with great care by men who have special knowl- 
edge of the subject, and they are owned by museums 
or connoisseurs. Some have been brought to this 
country by distinguished soldiers and statesmen, to 
whom they have been presented as tokens of respect, 
by potentates. Others have been obtained through the 
fortunes of war. 

Details of Rug- Weaving 23 

The Knotting 

Except in the Soumak and the Khilim, which have 
the flat stitch, there are only two kinds of knotting 
used in Oriental rugs. These knots are called the 
Persian or Sinna, and the Turkish or Ghiordes. 

In the Persian manner of knotting there are more 
knots to the square inch than in the Turkish, and the 
result is a finer surface. Often the Persian knotting is 
so fine that the surface of the fabric is like velvet The 
Persian knot is tied in such a manner that one end of 
the pile yarn extends from every spacing that separates 
the warp threads. It is made in such a way that a 
noose is formed, which tightens as the yarn is pulled. 
Occasionally it is turned in the opposite direction, and 
executed from left to right. In this case two threads 
of yarn are employed, this of course making the pile 
twice as thick as in the other. 

The Turkish or Ghiordes knot has the yarn twisted 
about the warp threads in such a manner that the two 
raised ends of the pile alternate with every two threads 
of the warp. 

24 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Experts have spent much time and invested much 
capital in the endeavor to make the rug industry as 
perfect as possible. Judging from the examples of 
India rugs I have seen, — some with a seven by six 
knot, others with a sixteen by sixteen knot, — I am con- 
vinced that the beauty, durability, and artistic effects 
produced by the efforts of the manufacturers will be 
appreciated more and more. From the fact that the 
best known firms in the rug business in New York, 
Chicago, and other cities in the United States, and 
several leading firms in England are sponsors for the 
present rug industry in India, it may naturally be in- 
ferred that it is prosecuted with skill and care. 

The different stitches made are as follows: — Seven 
by eight, or fifty-six hand-tied knots to the square inch; 
eight by eight, or sixty-four knots to the square inch; 
ten by ten, or one hundred knots to the square inch ; 
twelve by twelve, or one hundred and forty-four knots 
to the square inch ; and sixteen by sixteen, or two 
hundred and fifty-six knots to the square inch. These 
finer stitches are made in the very best examples pro- 
duced by the finest Persian weavers. A specimen 
recently shown me was an exact reproduction of the 
rug owned by Prince Alexis Lpbanow-Rostowsky, in 
which the stitch was the sixteen by sixteen. It was 
made in one of the factories in Kashmir, now controlled 


Size, 4. 1 X 2.8. 

This mat is a fine^ example of the Hamadan weave, 
which is so frequently met. The field of camel's hair 
is in the natural color. The medallion in the centre is 
woven mainly in red, as is also thci border of the mat. 
Both these, however, are ornamented with green, white, 
maroon, orange, and a few black lines. There is a 
fringe at each end of the rug» but at one end it is much 
deeper than at the other. 

Reproduce ii l/y courtesy of Messrs. A. A, Vantine ^ Co.^ New Tork, 

Details of Rug- Weaving 25 

by one of the leading rug importing establishments of 
Chicago. This fabric of the loom received the Grand 
Prix at the Paris Exhibition of 1900, and is now owned 
by a Chicago lady. 

2^ Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 


The designs of Eastern nigs are often the spon- 
taneous outcome of the fancy of the weaver. Some- 
times they are handed down from one generation 
to another; in some cases young girls are taught the 
design by an adult, who marks it in the sand; at other 
times a drawing of the rug is made on paper, the in- 
structor showing her pupils the arrangement of every 
thread and the color to be used. When all this has 
been done, the pupil must make the rug without look- 
ing at the drawing. 

Persian rugs excel those of other countries in 
artistic design as well as in harmonious coloring. The 
Persians seem to have a natural intuition in the use 
and blending of different shades, and in the designs 
that contain these colors they achieve the happiest 
results. It is really wonderful what exquisite fabrics 
these people, born and reared in ignorance and 
poverty, produce. 

The designs in Persian rugs are generally floral; and 
in some districts, especially Pars, the women weavers 

Details of Rug- Weaving 27 

invent the designs, varying them every two or three 
years. The Mohammedan religion does not allow any 
direct representation of animal forms ; consequently 
rugs woven under its influence take floral, geometric, 
and vegetable forms. The Shiah sect of Moslems, 
however, numbering about fifteen millions, — of wjiich 
eight millions are Persians, — do not regard represent- 
ations of animals as unlawful. By the industry of this 
sect, and that of infidels, and of all who disregard the 
law of the Koran, animal forms are seen on some 
Persian rugs. 

Among the good antique Persian rugs there are in 
all about thirty designs, all having different borders. 
Each design is the peculiar work of a family or tribe, 
and is produced continuously, from generation to 
generation without noticeable change, except in com- 
pliance with the demand of a buyer, or by a weaver 
who carries out some special fancy. A large number 
of buyers select the color, design, and size, leaving their 
order with an importer or a manufacturer. 

In the modern Oriental rug the designs are not to 
be entirely depended upon. They are apt to vary at 
the will of the weaver; and moreover. Occidental 
designs are now sent to the Orient to be woven into 
rugs by the native weavers of the Eastern country. 
The designs sent to Judia to be reproduced by the 

2^ Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

different European and American firms having factories 
there, are almost universally strictly Oriental in char- 
acter, being copies from fine old Persian pieces, or re- 
arrangements of Oriental forms. When the design 
reaches India, it has to be re-drawn to the exact size of 
the rug that is to be made. From this is copied what is 
called a talim, which is the only direction the weavers 
have. This talim, or guide, shows the weavers exactly 
how many knots of a color are to be tied; and when 
these different colors are put together, the design is 
formed. These talims are carefully kept, and as they 
are records of the designs, these can be reproduced at 
any time. 

Large rugs show best in large and bold designs, for 
small and crowded designs would not be artistic 
Small designs are, however, preferable on small rugs ; 
and the finer the border of a rug of whatever size, the 
more beautiful and costly the rug. A bold design on a 
small rug would spoil it. 

An average size for a large rug is six yards by four, 
and for this a bold vigorous design would be suitable. 


Size, 1 5. 3 X 6. 7. 

The tree design in its best and strongest elements is 
typified in this wonderful and most intcTesting Persian 
fabrication of olden tinie. The harmony of design and 
color is most impressive, and the size of the rug en- 
hances this effect. It was evidently woven by one 
weaver, and years of patient labor and the greatest skill 
must have been bestowed on it. The richness of color- 
ing, the velvet-like texture, the repose of design, are 
all unusual. The foundation is of a dc^ep rich blue, and 
the exquisite rose and sapphire blues and ivory tones 
are in the softest and richest of permanent dyes. The 
border is wide, the main stripe of the rose shade, and 
the coloring all so blended that the continuity of the rug 
is complete. It is doubtless a product of Kurdistan. 

Reproduce J h^ courtay of Mrs. Potter Palmer, Chicago, 


Details of Rug- Weaving 29 

The Dyes 

When doing their best work, Oriental weavers 
use the softest of permanent dyes. The result ob- 
tained is a thing of beauty and utility. The aniline 
dye is of course not to be compared to the vegetable, 
although the best of it is not to be utterly condemned. 
The poorest aniline dye eats into the rug, and the 
color fades. 

Madder ranks high among those plants which yield 
a permanent dye. It belongs to the genus Rubia ; the 
root employed is that of the Rubia tinctorum. This is 
largely cultivated in certain districts of India, but the 
best comes from near Smyrna, and from other parts of 
Asiatic Turkey. The plant grows wild throughout a 
large section of Central Asia and Russia. With both 
the European and the Indian madders the roots of the 
plants are the only parts that yield the dye. In the 
roots three coloring matters are obtained : alizarin and 
purpurin, which are both red, and xanthin, which is 
yellow. Cochineal was introduced for dyeing purposes 
in 1856. It is the product of an insect called Coccus 

30 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

cacti^ which lives on a species of cactus. Yellow is 
often produced from Persian berries, turmeric, saffron, 
and sumac. 

Tyrian purple dye was greatly prized by the Phoeni- 
cians. As stated above, it was obtained from a shell- 
fish ; but the secret was known only to the maritime 
Canaanites. The art of producing this dye has been 
lost, although in recent years some aver that it has 
been re-discovered. 

The Kermes dye, of which we often hear, is only 
another name for a red, not so brilliant as cochineal, 
but more durable, and is the product of a species of 

Greens are obtained from various sources. The 
Chinese green is a dye obtained from Rhamnus chlor- 
ophorus and Rhamnus utilis, a genus of shrubs. The fruit 
of several buckthorns, or the Persian berries, as they 
are generally called by dyers, gives also greens and 
brilliant yellows. Most of the greens, however, are 
produced by the combination of indigo with yellow. 

Indigo, mentioned by Pliny as Indicum, yields the 
deep blue dye so much prized by the Romans. Arrian 
speaks of indigo, and says that it was exported from 
Barbarike, on the Indus, into Egypt. This plant is 
grown in India, China, North and South America, 
Mexico, Central America, Africa, Japan, Madagascar, 

Details of Rug-Weaving 3^ 

and Jamaica. When the Indian indigo plant, Indigo- 
fera tinctoria, is in flower, it contains the largest 
quantity of coloring matter. 

32 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Oriental Colors 

Among Orientals a good deal of significance has 
attached, from the earliest days, to colon In Baby- 
lon scarlet was the symbol of fire, blue of air, and 
purple of water. Tyrian purple was an exquisite and 
rare shade of crimson. Many allusions are made to it 
by classical writers. The principal colors of the ancient 
Egyptians were red, yellow, and blue. Black was the 
symbol of error. White signified a holy life, purity, 
innocence of soul. The priests of Zeus and of Osiris 
were robed in white. Red was the symbol of zeal for 
the faith. Yellow was supposed to bring evil and 
sorrow. Blue was the symbol of truth. Black and 
white were often used to outline other colors. 

The Persians, unlike most other Orientals, are not 
fond of bright colors. They are apt to avoid the light 
shades of red and green as being too showy, and 
further, as being liable to fade. Greens and yellows 
in dark shades they treat with more favor. They con- 
sider black and indigo as the symbols of sorrow; rose 
is the symbol of Divine Wisdom; green represents 
initiation into the knowledge of the Most High. 

Size, 6.9 X 1 1.4. 

The texture of this rug is very fine. It is thick and 
soft, and very compact and smooth. There is a force 
both in color and design. On a deep blue field rests a 
lafge medallion in rather strong colors, red, blue, 
green, and ivory. Heavily ornamented corner areas in 
the same shades give to the whole design a certain 
symmetry, and a wide floral border with much ivory 
gives an air of solidity. 

Reproduced by courtesy of Messrs, Arnold, Constable ^ Co», New York, 

Details of Rug- Weaving 33 

Among the Chinese, yellow is the symbol of royalty. 
The Emperor of China and his sons may wear a yellow 
robe ; their descendants wear yellow sashes and have 
yellow bridles for their horses. Red is the symbol of 
truth, virtue, and sincerity. It is the color of the 
highest degree of official rank. White is the symbol 
of mourning ; black represents vice and depravity. 

Of the Turkish colors, green is the most sacred ; 
and for this reason a true follower of Mahomet will not 
permit it to be used in his rugs, for fear it may be pro- 
faned by being stepped upon. Twenty-five or thirty 
years ago no Christian was allowed to wear even a 
vestige of green anywhere upon him, while in Turkey; 
but this law is not now so rigidly enforced. If the 
Prophet or any of his family wear this color, no objec- 
tion is raised, as he and they are considered holy, and 
thus exempt from the penalty. White is the color per- 
mitted to a student or teacher of the law. 






Rug- Weaving in Egypt 

^ir^HE supply of skins having been found inadequate 
-*^ to the gratification of their desire for comfort, 
the ancient Egyptians gradually developed the art of 
making mats from papyrus, a plant as important to them 
as any of our trees, fibrous grasses, or hemp are to us. 
While at work on the manufacture of these mats, the 
weavers used to squat on the ground. They became 
skillful, both in constructing the fabric and arranging 
the colors; the latter were quite bright and effective, 
being chiefly red, blue, yellow, and green, with black 
and white to define. 

Egyptians used rugs in the decoration of their 
rooms, hanging them on walls, and they also suspended 
them between the pillars. But as the glory of Egypt 
departed, her skill in rug making also declined; and 
the Egyptian rugs of the present day are of a coarse 
quality, being made in private houses under the primi- 

38 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

tive conditions that existed thousands of years ago. 
The last manufactory in working order was at Boulak, 
a suburb of Cairo, but it has been closed for several 
years. A great many rugs, however, are imported into 
Egypt, the majority being from Persia, Turkey, and 
India. Cairo is still one of the headquarters for the 
sale of rugs of Eastern make to tourists. 


Size, 1 1.6 X 5.10. 

This is a fine specimen of the Samarkand rug. As 
usual in rugs of this class, the weaving is rather loose 
and the texture thin. The coloring is extremely rich 
and mellow. The field of red is in a warm tone, and 
the medallions are in fine shades of yellow. One of 
the border stripes is a Chinese design. As in all rugs 
of this description, the Chinese element is plainly seen, 
both in design and colon showing what proximity of 
location will effect. 

Reproduced by courtesy of Messrs, Arnold, Constable ^ Co., New Tork. 

Egypt, Persia, and Turkey 39 

Persian Rugs 

In Persia the art of rug making has attained a 
very high degree of excellence, having been practiced 
there during many centuries; indeed, the exact period 
when this industry was introduced into that country is 
not known. Tradition has it that long before the days of 
Alexander the Great, rugs were woven at Shuster, then 
the capital ; and being a luxury, they were woven solely 
for kings' palaces, and on the finest gold warp. 

The Persians having been an industrious and civil- 
ized people for many centuries, and a large proportion 
of them having been accustomed to the nomadic and 
pastoral life, it is a natural inference that love of gain 
and the demand from the growing towns for articles of 
beauty and luxury gave the wandering tribes the oppor- 
tunity to utilize their wool by supplying the demand. 
Encouraged as it was under the reign of Abbas Shah, 
the industry prospered. Various kings of Persia culti- 
vated certain branches of art and industry, but Abbas 
Shah especially gave a decided impetus to rug weaving. 
He had a particular fondness for the beautiful creations 

40 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

of this industrial art, and the rugs made during his reign 
bring fabulous prices. After his death a reaction 
followed. Rugs fell into comparative disuse, and the 
manufacture deteriorated until about 1850, when, thanks 
to the demand in Europe, the industry revived. To- 
day it is in a flourishing condition and the most impor- 
tant source of Persia's income. 

Persians, from the Shah to the peasant, sit upon 
rugs when eating, with cushions placed behind them. 
It is only the lowest beggar who has no rug. The rugs 
used by the Persians themselves are rather small, the 
larger ones being exported to foreign countries. Usu- 
ally the rooms of Persian homes are small, and narrow 
in proportion to their length; consequently only small 
rugs are required. But even when the rooms are large, 
the Persians prefer several small rugs to one large rug, 
as a floor covering. They often first cover the hard- 
beaten ground with a matting of split reeds, and then 
lay over this so many small rugs that the matting can- 
not be seen. This custom is becoming more and more 
common in Persia. With their taste in design and 
color, they produce beautiful effects. 

The finest rugs are closely woven with a pile like 
velvet, and with stitches on the back that resemble 
needlework. A rug has scarcely reached its prime 
until it has been down ten years; and it should last for 

Egypt, Persia, and Turkey 4i 

centuries, if carefully used. As a partial explanation 
of this wonderful durability, it should be remembered 
that in their own homes the Persians use their finest 
rugs for hangings, and also that they take off their 
shoes before entering the house. 

In ancient days rug weaving in Persia was generally 
restricted to Ispahan, Khorassan, and Shuster, but in 
modern times the most noted districts are those of 
Sultanabad, Fars, Hamadan, Feraghan, Bijar, Kurdistan, 
Khorassan, and Kirman. But the industry is so widely 
spread over Persia that there is not a class of women 
who do not live by it, and very often really fine pieces 
of work are produced in districts where the art receives 
no encouragement The districts mentioned above are 
more noted for the quality of the rugs they produce 
than for anything else. The rug of each district has a 
peculiar character of its own, both as to the quality of 
the wool and the design employed. The peculiarities 
characterizing each district are so noticeable that an 
expert can tell at a glance where a rug was made. 

It is very difficult, if not impossible, to discover the 
exact value of the export and import trade of Persia. 
The source of this information is naturally the Customs 
Administration, which in Persia exists but in name. 
The duties of the ports and principal towns are farmed 
out to various persons, whose interest it is to send the 

42 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

inquirer away as ignorant upon the subject as he was 
before the interview began. But it is possible, after a 
great deal of labor in collecting statistics from the 
dealers of a particular article, to form an estimate 
probably not very far from the truth. By this method 
we judge that the average yearly export value of rugs 
in Aaragh (the Sultanabad district) is three hundred 
thousand dollars; Hamadan one hundred thousand; 
Bijar one hundred and ten thousand ; Malair one hun- 
dred thousand dollars; Kurdistan fifty thousand; Fars 
seventy-five thousand; Kirman and Khorassan one 
hundred thousand ; and in the less known districts, col- 
lectively, fifty thousand dollars. The total of these 
figures classes the rug export in the very first order of 
exports. It is plain that this amount does not represent 
the full value of the manufacture, inasmuch as a great 
quantity of the goods does not leave the country. This 
quantity is perhaps small in comparison with that ex- 
ported, but it is large enough to make the value nearly 
a million dollars. 

It may be of interest to mention here that the ex- 
port duty on rugs on the average is two and a half 
cents per square foot, and carriage to the sea ports ten 
cents per square foot, while the import duty to the 
United States is forty per cent ad valorem^ and the 
specific duty ten cents per square foot 

Size, 4.6 X 6.6. 

This is a beautiful example of the very fine weave 
and the even clipping that characterize tlie Sinna rugs. 
Thickly studding the dark blue field are minute designs 
in blue and rose hues, with which pale green, yellow, 
and a sapphire blue blend most harmoniously. All 
these small designs rest in the usual diaper design, 
which may be traced throughout the rug. The border 
is charming, with its ground-work of fine yellow, on 
which are delicate tracings of light green, ivory, and 
blue. The effect of light and shade upon this exquisite 
piece of weaving brings out plainly the marvelous sheen 
which is a feature of this rug. The innumerable small 
figures which appear throughout the rug, with their 
blending of soft hues, present a kaleidoscopic effect. 

Reproduced by courtesy of Mrs. Emmons Blaine, Chicago. 

Egypt, Persia, and Turkey 43 

In Persia several firms have done a great deal in the 
way of encouraging the industry of rug weaving in that 
country. To supply the demand for Persian rugs in 
Europe and America, these firms have erected build- 
ings in Sultanabad, where they keep the weavers 
under control and steadily employed. These firms, 
having been long established, are conversant with the 
Persians and their character; and to prevent any 
deception they pay the weavers by the piece instead 
of by the day. 

The rugs produced by these firms are of the medium 
quality. The wool is bought in the rough and man- 
ipulated for use. Every day a quantity of it is given 
out to the laborers, who must reproduce the design 
placed before them, and each laborer is paid from two 
to four dollars per square yard, according to the 
quality of her work. In the service of these firms, the 
weaver is obliged to put aside her individual taste and 
follow closely the designs, which are prepared in 
accordance with the prevailing fashions abroad. The 
independent native weaver does not pay any attention 
to the taste of the buyer. She places her work in the 
local market, and the native merchant purchases it for 

44 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Characteristics of Certain Persian Rugs 

Bakhshis rugs are made of poor material and are 
not at all desirable, being badly woven and of poor 

The so-called Birjand rugs are woven almost ex- 
clusively in the village of Daraksh, about fifty miles 
north-east of Birjand. The weavers of these rugs came 
originally from Herat. The rugs are generally satis- 
factory, the weaving being fine, although in most cases 

The Plain of Feraghan exports annually a large 
number of rugs rather loosely woven, but soft and 
durable. The entire centre is often filled with rather 
small irregular figures on a dark blue field. These 
rugs are firm, and generally heavy and large ; the bor- 
der, in old rose or some other color, with a design in 
the form of rosettes and palmettes connected by a vine, 
is always attractive. Yellow is often employed in a 
modern Feraghan, both in the border and in the field. 
Quite an important feature of Feraghan and other 
places of high altitude is the rug-woven saddlebag. 
When stuffed, such bags make comfortable sofa pillows. 

Egypt, Persia, and Turkey 45 

or they can be placed as seats on chairs. Throughout 
Asia, saddlebags are used by riders on camels as cush- 
ions, by other travelers for containing clothes and other 
goods, and by children for their school books. 

Gorevan rugs are of fine quality and well woven. 
The hues are bright, and are generally on a field of 
cream color; the centre represents a medallion, and the 
border is elaborate. In one that I recently saw, the 
cream-colored field in the border was heavily worked 
in fine reds, and in the medallion the reds were com- 
bined with rich blues. 

Hamadan rugs are generally of camel's hair, with 
the ground-work in the natural shade. A medallion in 
red, yellow, blue, and sometimes green, decorates the 
centre, and the rug is finished with a border of the 
same. In other rugs from Hamadan the medallion is 
dispensed with ; most of them are floral in design, and 
they have borders of camel's hair, and a ground-work 
in the natural color. 

Herat rugs of fine quality and very durable are now 
woven in Persia by tribes originally from Afghanistan. 
The principal designs are the Herati and the palm leaf, 
arranged over the field in a systematic way. Some of 
the modern Herats have medallion centres, in which 
the wool is generally red or blue, and sometimes green 
and yellow. 

46 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Herez rugs are attractive, the chief color often being 
a fine blue, upon which rests a pronounced medallion. 
The corners are defined by serrated lines, and are in 
shades of the red of autumn leaves. Often these corners 
are decorated with small designs. The main border 
stripe is light in color — often cream — with good-sized 
markings. Herez rugs are made in the province of 

Iran is the official name for Persia, and when a rug 
is called by this name, the meaning is simply that it is 
a Persian rug. 

Karadagh rugs are made by nomads who are called 
Aylauts, and who live in the mountainous region north 
of Tabriz. The rugs made by these nomads are in 
striking designs, and are floral in effect 

Kermanshah rugs are made in large sizes and with 
elaborate designs. The antiques are very fine, but the 
modern rugs generally sold as Kermanshah are only 
exported from that place, which is a great caravan 
centre. They are woven in Kirman. 

Rugs from the province of Khorassan are recog- 
nizable by their borders, which contain a long palm- 
like or floral design. This is a characteristic of antique 
Khorassans. A prominent color in these rugs is ma- 
genta, which, though somewhat harsh at first, becomes 
more agreeable to the eye when it is softened by time. 

Size, lo X 26. 

This is a perfect example of a Meshhed rug. The 
capital city of Khorassan has furnished many character- 
istic specimens of fine handicraft, but ndne more repre- 
sentative or beautiful. Here, on a splendid rich blue 
field is the elongated palm leaf, with its markings of 
magenta, red, and blue. These palm leaf designs ex- 
tend over the entire rug, which is of enormous size. 
The border is in harmony with the field, and in col- 
oring has the same deep, rich hues. The texture is firm 
and the rug is very heavy and imposing, with an air of 
solidity and strength. The illustration shows a section 
of this rug, giving a clear idea of its detail. 

Reproduced by courtesy of Mrs. Sydney Richmond Tabor, Lake Forest. 


Egypt, Persia, and Turkey 47 

Meshhed, the capital city of Khorassan, weaves rugs of 
fine colors; the palm leaf when represented on this 
rug is very large and impressive, often on a deep blue 
field Animals and birds are frequently seen on the 
Meshhed rug. 

The Kirman rug, made in the province of Irak- 
Ajemi, frequently has a medallion in the centre, en- 
twined with flowers. Sometimes the Tree of Life is 
represented, its branches bearing different fruits, and 
often there are symbolical little birds in the border. 
Sometimes a vase of flowers is the principal ornament, 
sometimes several small trees either with or without 
foliage. The Kirman rug is generally one of the most 
easily recognizable; and its substantial quality and 
lightness of weight make it very useful as well as 
highly decorative. 

Kurdistan (the Persian portion) is a large region 
inhabited by the nomadic tribes called Kurds; and the 
sheep and goats belonging to these tribes furnish the 
fine wool that is woven into Kurdish rugs. Dark blues 
and reds form the ground-work, in the centre of which 
is a lozenge or large diamond, ornamented with small 
designs of the palm leaf. Frequently, by examining 
the texture, one may discover a design in colored wool 
at each end. 

48 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Rugs woven in the province of Laristan are without 
regularity of design. Few are exported. 

Sarabands (Serebends) always have a distinct 
feature in the small palm leaves which adorn them. 
These leaves have the hook at the top turned from left 
to right in one row, and right to left in the next Usu- 
ally these palm leaf designs appear on a field of old 
rose or soft red. The border is likely to be floral and 
with many long lines of varied width, the widest in an 
ivory tone. The finest of these rugs is called the 
Mir Saraband. 

Sarakhs are rugs which frequently have inscriptions 
and floral designs. The field is often of camel's hair, 
or in deep rich reds and blues. The medallion, or 
some other design, finds its place in the centre. The 
corner pieces are elaborate. The rug itself is heavy. 

Serapi rugs have the medallion in cream or ivory, 
and this is surrounded by a floral design. These rugs, 
which come in large sizes, frequently have inscriptions. 

Shiraz^ the capital city of Fars, has exported some 
of the most interesting and exquisite rugs in existence. 
In the sixteenth century Shiraz was at the height of its 
prosperity, and all the neighboring country was noted 
for its flocks of sheep, which produced the finest of 
wool. Rugs were made at Shiraz for the reigning 
Shahs, who had palaces there, and the workmanship 

Egypt, Persia, and Turkey 49 

displayed in them was most beautiful. The city was 
visited by an earthquake in 1853, and since that catas- 
trophe the manufacture of rugs has not regained its 
former prosperity; yet great improvement has been 
shown in recent years, and the same vegetable dyes 
are still in use. The Shiraz is often called the Mecca 
rug, as it is the one frequently selected by pilgrims to 
that city. Deep rich blues are often seen in a Shiraz rug, 
and frequently stripes extend throughout the centre, as 
well as in the border, where diamond forms and crosses 
are also frequently seen. The medallion and the palm 
leaf are found in this rug also. Rugs of Shiraz design 
are woven in the south-eastern part of Persia and in the 
northern part of Arabia. These have a long fringe, 
and a very wide piece of knitted warp at each end. 

The Sinna rug, made in the province of Irak- 
Ajemi, has an exquisite sheen and is much prized. Its 
nap is closely cut, and with its pile like rich velvet, 
and its fine coloring, it is most beautiful. Sometimes 
peach-blow and rose shades are so portrayed that the 
effect is fascinating. The central design is often a 
diamond, or delicate tracings of the palm leaf; some- 
times flowerets cover the entire rug. As a rule, Sinna 
rugs look best when used as table covers or as hang- 
ings, their fine texture and delicate colorings showing 
in this way to better advantage than when they are 

50 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

placed upon the floor. When the edges of these rugs 
curl, as often happens, they should be intrusted to a 
reliable mender, who can restore them. 

Sultanabad is one of the most important rug pro- 
ducing regions of Western Asia. Large quantities of 
rugs from this district are exported to the United 
States, and are then frequently called Savalans. The 
variety of brilliant hues in these rugs is perhaps the 
largest in Persia. Sixty miles from Sultanabad is 
Burujird, where rugs are also made. 

Tabriz^ the capital city of the province of Azer- 
baijan, exports many rugs of a floral type with me- 
dallion designs. Here are woven very fine and beau- 
tiful rugs, many of which are made from the combings 
of sheep. The antique Tabriz rug is of fine coloring 
and meritorious in every way. The modern Tabriz 
is sometimes a little too bright, but time softens its 
hues and tones them down, while many are in soft 
tones from the beginning. Eleven rugs that I recently 
examined, from a fresh importation, were of this fine 
character. Many of these are woven in very large 
sizes, owing to the demand for such. The modem 
Tabriz frequently has representations of animals woven 
in different parts of it, including the border. 

Yezd, where the fire worshippers live, furnishes rugs 


Size, 4. 6 X 6.9. 

The rich magenta which is the field of this rug has 
been mellowed by time. There is throughout the rug 
a softness and harmony of tone that is very pleasing. 
The niche is high, and the corner areas and the border 
are in richly blended blues and yellows, with magenta. 
The delicacy of the floral designs, and the warmth of 
tone, give it a particular charm. 

Reproduced .hy courtesy of Messn, Marshall Field Ijf Co., Chicago, 



Egypt, Persia, and Turkey 5 1 

with a short pile, but these are used chiefly in mosques, 
and seldom leave Persia. 

A fine Persian rug is valuable, even at the seat of 
manufacture. A small one, measuring three by four- 
and-a-half feet, quite modern, but very fine and with 
splendid colors, has been sold at Teheran for eight 
hundred dollars. 

52 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Turkish Rugs 

The term Turkish Rugs includes all those rugs 
that are manufactured within the Turkish Empire, 
whether the manufacturers be Kurds or Circassians or 
Christians; the last of these names comprises the 
Armenians, the Greeks, and the Syrians. Turkish rugs 
are not so finely woven as Persian; they have a longer 
pile and looser texture. As they are usually very soft 
and thick, the foot when walking upon these rugs feels 
as if it were treading upon a bed of moss. 

The principal rug-manufacturing district of Turkey 
is Karajadagh. Much weaving is done also at Caesarea. 
The rugs found at Adana are generally from the latter 
region, while those sold at Urfa are either from the 
Kurdish territory or from Persia. In Constantinople 
are seen rugs from almost every part of Asia, but the 
greatest number are from within the Turkish territory 
of Transcaucasia. 

Each rug-weaving district of Turkey seems to have 
a distinct and individual class of rugs; and this is not 
surprising, for there are a number of different tribes, 

Egypt, Persia, and Turkey 53 

each of which impresses its individuality upon the work. 
The surface configuration and the climate of a place have 
much to do with the quality of the rugs manufactured 
within it. Naturally in the rocky, mountainous regions 
the flocks consist of goats instead of sheep. The sheep 
would be injured among the steep, sharp crags, and 
much of their wool would be lost, as it would adhere to 
the rocks. The goats, however, being hardy, easily jump 
from crag to crag, sustaining no injury to their hair. 

The hair of the goat is woven into the mohair and 
so-called Smyrna rugs, and also into what is known as 
Paul's Tent Cloth. This last is woven quite differently 
from other rugs ; it is the coarsest of all, and the women 
weave it on the ground. To make it firm enough to 
keep out every drop of rain requires laborious work 
with the fingers, but when the cloth is woven with care, 
it is a most excellent shelter from the storm. A large 
Paul's Tent, such as a rich man owns, costs about four 
hundred dollars. It shelters the women of the house- 
hold, as well as the cattle ; and one part is partitioned 
off for a guest room. 

In Turkey the floor is always covered with matting, 
and the matting, in its turn, is so closely covered with 
rugs as to be quite concealed. In large cities rugs are 
used in the summer for divan and couch covers; in the 
winter the same rugs serve as beds. 

54 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Characteristics of Certain Turkish Rugs 

Akhissar rugs have a thick pile, and are loosely 
woven. Their colors are usually green and red. Rugs 
of mohair are made at Akhissar. 

Anatolian mats are common in Asia Minor, where 
they are used by the natives for pillows. They are 
soft to the cheek, and of fairly firm dyes. The designs 
are varied and many. 

Bergamo rugs have quite a long, silky pile, and are 
of very good quality. The designs are either large 
geometrical figures, or floral in character. Orange is 
a usual color, while pale greens, reds, soft blues, and 
browns are also common. The size of a Bergamo is 
usually about three to six feet wide, by four to eight 
feet long. 

Ghiordes rugs have designs that are generally similar 
to the Persian. Often there is a small plain centre of 
green or light magenta, or a blue, with a deep border 
of fine floral effect These rugs are loosely woven. 

Karaman has a considerable trade with Smyrna. Its 
rugs are coarse, loosely woven, and not at all attractive. 

Size, 12.2 X 5.6. 

This is an unusually fine specimen of the antique 
Shirvan Khilim. Its hues are softened by time, and 
the contrasting^ colors are so carefully blended that the 
artistic effect is not lost. This Khilim has been care- 
fully woven, and is firm and durable. The broad bands 
of apple and green and other hues, interrupted by nar- 
rower bands, irive a certain character and strenofth of 
appc^arance to this beautiful piece of Oriental work- 
manship. Some of the bands are embroidered with 
much skill. 

Reproduitd h\ courtcis of Mn, Robert Dunlap, Chicago. 

^' ^^^ ^ t^' Z.£ 2XZ2Z Z Z jrj - fZZ ? LLUJ ' Zl 


-r9i^ rtti rrr3rm' mi»*3»i^ ,. r ^-rrrr77 

Egypt, Persia, and Turkey 55 

Kir- Shehr rugs are made in the province of Angora. 
Because of their durability and thickness they are both 
useful and desirable. Their colorings are rather strong, 
but fine; green is the most usual color, although red 
and blue are frequent. The designs are mostly of 
Arabic origin, and quite highly decorative. 

Konieh rugs are of great weight and resemble 
Ouchaks. They usually have a plain centre, and when 
there are panels these are also of one shade. Being 
firm and strong, they are very durable. 

The modern loosely woven Kulah rugs are not 
equal in any way to the antiques. The latter have 
fine texture, and are in soft shades of blue, red, and 
yellow. The modern Kulahs have a coarse aspect, 
and the coloring is generally fugitive. 

In Kurdistan (the Turkish portion) rugs are woven 
by the women in odd moments, and one of the ways a 
girl gains distinction among her associates is by the 
skill she displays in rug-weaving. As the wool is taken 
from the flocks that are kept near home, and is spun 
and dyed there, and as the time consumed in the rug- 
weaving is not counted, each rug is considered clear 
gain. In fact, the Kurdish women do not make their 
rugs entirely for the market, but for their own enter- 
tainment and use. 

56 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Kurdish rugs are very durable, and they are much 
prized in Turkey ; but they do not sell readily in 
America, because of the lack of that harmony of color 
which our taste demands. Their coloring is often too 
bright and varied to attract us. An Armenian clergy- 
man said to the writer recently, ''I find Americans 
more devoted to harmony than to anything else. I 
have in my house, ' ' he continued, ' ' one of the finest of 
Kurdish rugs, but I could never sell it in this country, 
should I wish. An American looks at it and says, 
' What hideous colors, ' and I doubt if I could even give 
it away, although it would be considered a superior 
rug in Turkey. ' ' 

Kutahia sends out Anatolian rugs of goat's hair 
and wool. 

Ladik rugs come in small sizes, and are of coarse 
quality with bright colorings. Antique Ladiks are 
difficult to find, and are much better in every wav than 
those of modern make. 

The loosely woven Meles rugs are made at Milassa. 
Reds, blues, yellows, and greens of fugitive character 
are seen in the modem ones. 

Mohair rugs are made of the soft silky hair of the 
Angora goat ; but though beautiful, they are not durable. 

Mosul rugs are strong and rich in colorings of blue, 
yellow, green, and red. The designs are rather strik- 

Egypt, Persia, and Turkey 57 

ing, and with their silky softness, these nigs are 
generally desirable. The best are made of camel's 
hair, including the outer border, but occasionally they 
are made partly of goat's hair. They are now made in 
several Turkish provinces, and are often wrongly called 
Persian rugs. 

At Ouchak^ with its large population, there are 
steadily at work about two thousand looms, giving 
employment to fully four thousand weavers, and as 
many as one hundred and fifty dyers. Ouchak is the 
principal city of Asiatic Turkey for the dyeing of the 
wool of which the rugs are woven, and that industry is 
carried on in many factories. Ouchak rugs have a thick 
pile; and though green is forbidden by Mohammedan 
law, the modem rugs frequently have green for their 
dominant color. The reason for this innovation is that 
the influence of their religious faith has waned, and con- 
sequently the law regarding that color is not now 
strictly enforced. The weavers of these rugs are mostly 
Moslem women and girls. The wool is generally 
bought in the interior from nomad tribes, and the weav- 
ing is carried on in private houses in a manner similar 
to that of other rugs, except that the yarn is spun more 
loosely. Until recently, even the best Ouchak rugs 
were apt to have inferior wool for their foundation, and 
hemp was frequently employed. The wool was loosely 

5S Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

woven, . and the dyes were fugitive. There are now, 
however, certain provinces in Turkey, including Ouchak, 
where the products are controlled by European and 
American firms, and where excellent wool and natural 
dyes are used. The rugs made under such control are 
very durable and in every way satisfactory. In size 
Ouchaks vary greatly, ranging from a few feet to fifty 
by twenty-five feet 

The Turkish rugs made at Sivas are always woven 
of wool, and almost every hamlet carries on the industry 
of weaving in the homes. There are no factories, the 
young girls and women doing the work here, as in 
other parts of Turkey. Sivas rugs are in most cases 
small, measuring about eight by four feet; but lately 
larger and more attractive rugs are being made. Even 
the poorest families have fine rugs, for they regard 
them as valuable property, to be sold only under the 
pressure of great extremity. The weavers are so frugal 
in their manner of living that their daily earning of 
fourteen to nineteen cents is sufficient to supply their 
wants. Their food consists usually of rice and crushed 
wheat, with occasionally a small piece of mutton. 

Smyrna is only a mart for the sale of comparatively 

inferior rugs that are made in the interior from the 

coarse hair of the Angora goat These are woven in 

. irregular designs, and although not artistic are largely 

Size, 4. 10 X 7.5. 

Although distinctly Arabic in style, this rug was 
probably woven in the vicinity of Shiraz. The squares 
which form the design resemble an old-fashioned log 
quilt in the variety of their colors and the regularity of 
their stripes. vSome hues are green, then red comes 
into play, while plum, brown, yellow, and blue are also 
employed. The wide border of stripes shows the 
Shiraz ornamentation in its beauty, and the Greek 
crosses suggest the possibility of a Christian weaver. 
There is a fine sheen on the surface. This rug is quite 
heavy, and its very oddity makes it interesting to the 

Reproduced by courtesy of Messrs, Marshall Field ^ Co,, Chicago, 

Egypt, Persia, and Turkey 59 

sought as coverings for the bare floors, and to add 
warmth. The weaving of these rugs is loosely done 
by girls and women. Sometimes the loom is primi- 
tively constructed from the trunks of trees. The designs 
are very simple, and have either been handed down 
from earlier generations or are supplied from the city. 

Yuruk rugs are so called from a band of nomads 
who dwell among the mountains of Anatolia. They 
have large flocks of fine sheep, and weave rugs of firm, 
even texture. The colors are very good, the field often 
of dark brown, ornamented with large designs. 

In different sections of Turkey, the webs that might 
be used as rugs are made into saddlebags, sacks, and 





Indian Rugs 

' I ^HE manufacture of rugs was introduced into India 
•^ by the Mohammedans at their first invasion in 
the beginning of the eleventh century. Persian rugs, 
however, were always preferred to those made in 
India, and princes and nobles of the Delhi Court, when 
it was in its greatest splendor, sought the fabrics 
woven in Herat, or by the Sharrokhs on the Attrek, or 
the nomad tribes of Western Kurdistan. These were 
purchased only by the princes and their wealthy 
followers. A few specimens of these rugs still remain 
in India, and are now and then reproduced with more 
or less accuracy. 

In the sixteenth century, however, the Emperor 
Akbar, or more properly Jalal-ud-Din Mahomed, sent 
for Persian weavers to make the exquisite fabrics for 
which Persia was then so famous. At first these 
weavers continued to weave according to the designs 
employed in their own land; but it is not surprising 

64 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

that as time went on, and the natives of India learned 
the art of weaving from the Persians, Hindoo ideas 
should have found expression, in Southern India 
especially. Thus geometrical designs were substituted 
for floral, although even now the designs of some 
Indian rugs revive memories of Persian teachers in 
the careful arrangement of flowers and leaves. The 
designs of Indian rugs were frequently named after 
the original owners, in which cases the weavers 
generally lived and worked in the houses of their 
employers. At the present time the manufacture of 
many Indian rugs is carried on largely in jails, where 
the old Persian designs are generally used. 

In Indian rugs, as in those of other countries, 
there are certain distinct characteristics that stamp 
them as coming from particular districts, and in India 
alone are to be detected the few Assyrian types still 
in existence. Genuine old India rugs are works of 
art, but they are rarely seen. 

The religion of the Hindoo does not permit of his 
tasting the flesh of sheep ; and as India is not a wool 
producing country, except in the northern part, cotton 
largely takes its place. For this reason, and because 
the time consumed for weaving is less, Indian rugs ^e 
generally less expensive than Persian. 

Mr. Julian Ralph, in an interesting account of his 


Size, 5. lo X 3.4. 

This rug is a modern product of India. The prayer 
niche, with long Hnes leading to it, extends well toward 
the top. The niche is decorated with a delicate, dark 
blue, floral design in ivory, red, and fawn, and the lines 
leading- to it are ornamented in blue, red, and brown. 
The Held is a beautiful sag"e green, and the main border 
is embellislied with reds, browns, ivory, and occasion- 
ally with light blue. The (juter border is of the same 
green as the field. At each end is a full fringe. This 
rug is from Amritsar. 

Rt'produrCif hy courtny of Mr.isry. A. A, Vantlne ^ Co,, New Tork. 

India and Central Asia ^5 

visit to the home of a prince in India, published 
recently in one of our magazines, writes of the 
splendid rugs shown him by his host: **They were 
state rugs, and one was green with a border of gold 
that must have weighed twenty pounds or more. The 
other was red with a similar border, so stiff and cum- 
brous that it did not seem made to walk upon. How- 
ever, the prince sent for his stiff-soled heavy-heeled 
ceremonial shoes which were quite as richly crusted with 
gold, and walked about on the rugs, crushing the gold 
embroidery in a ruthless way. ' ' When Mr. Ralph spoke 
of the damage, he said, **It is of no consequence, 
these borders have to be renewed very frequently. ' ' 

An Indian rug of great beauty was taken to Eng- 
land from India by Lord Clive, who ordered the 
architect of his magnificent palace — Claremont — then 
in process of building, to design a room especially for 
it. Such special care for the proper display of this 
work of art may be exceptional, but it shows true 
appreciative power on the part of Clive. 

From the time of the decadence of the industry of 
weaving fine shawls, which was so long a feature of 
Kashmir, the wool of which they were woven was 
gradually transferred to the rug industry, and the 
weavers turned their attention from the shawls to the 
rugs on which they displayed the same patience and skill. 

66 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Characteristics of Certain Indian Rugs 

Agra sends out very satisfactory rugs. These are 
mostly of great weight and thickness. Many of the 
best are woven in the jail. The finest specimen that I 
have seen belongs to Mrs. Potter Palmer of Chicago, 
and is a duplicate of one owned by Mrs. Frederick D. 
Grant The rug is of enormous size and weight, and 
the tree design is arranged in shades of exquisite blue 
upon a field of delicate fawn color. The border, in the 
same coloring, gives the most perfect harmony to the 
entire rug. Many more Agra rugs would be imported, 
but there is now a United States law prohibiting the 
importation of goods made in jail. 

Allahabad rugs are similar to those of Agra, but 
the former are as a rule preferable. 

Amritsar supplies the market with some of the 
finest of modern Indian rugs. Leading English and 
American firms have factories located there, and for 
that reason rugs brought into the Occident from Am- 
ritsar are reliable. They are firm in texture, and have 
fast colors. The manufacturers realize the importance 

India and Central Asia ^7 

of these attributes in a rug, and their own respon- 
sibility in the matter. 

The Dhurrie (Durrie) is a strong, well-made rug of 
cotton, often in stripes of blue, brown, or grey, with 
narrow yellow and red lines. Some Dhurries end in a 
fringe, and are square. In India they are largely used 
by the foreign population, and in the United States 
they are especially appropriate for summer time. They 
are made chiefly at Agra, Cawnpur, Delhi, Lucknow, 
and in the vicinity of Bombay. 

Ellore rugs belong to the inexpensive class, but the 
designs and colors are pleasing. As they are made 
chiefly of fibre mixed with wool, they are not durable. 

Formerly Haidarabad sent out rugs famous for 
their beauty, with designs in the forms of medallions, 
filled with flat floral ornaments and woven with wool 
pile on a cotton foundation. But the modern Hai- 
darabad by no means compares with the antique. 

Jaipur rugs are generally made in the schools of 
art They contain many Persian designs representing 
animals and the cypress tree. The borders are floral, 
and the field is generally ivory, red, or blue. 

Lahore y the British capital of the Punjab, has rugs 
woven in both wool and cotton, and the work is done 
mostly in jails. The designs are Persian, and the 
texture embraces from forty to one hundred knots to 
the square inch. 

^S Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Masulipatam rugs were once noted for their beauty, 
but now many of them are poor in design and work- 

Mirzapur rugs are sometimes wrongly sold for 
Turkish, which they somewhat resemble. The antiques 
are very durable, but this cannot be said of all the modern 
ones, the vegetable fibre that is used in part in the con- 
struction of them not being durable. Few are exported 
to the United States. 

Moodj is the name given to a coarse hardy mat, 
suitable for the verandah. It is made of Buffalo grass, 
which grows six to twelve feet high in India. This 
is harvested, the fibre extracted by pounding, and 
then it is twisted into rope or yarn. Afterwards it 
is dyed. 

Multan rugs have large geometrical figures in octa- 
gons, medallions, and circles. These rugs are very 
lasting. Their general coloring is of dark red and blue. 
Sometimes a really beautiful modern Multan is dis- 
covered. Occasionally an emerald green or a yellow 
alternates with the usual reds and blues. The modem 
ones are not largely imported into the United States. 
The antique Multan is very fine, but scarce. 

Mysore rugs are cheap and not interesting. 

Patna rugs are usually in blue and white ; in quality 
they resemble the modern Multan. 

India and Central Asia ^ 

Pushmina rugs have their name from the man- 
ufacturers, who thus designate rugs that are woven of 

Rugs from Sindh are the cheapest and least durable 
of all Indian rugs, and on this account not many are 
imported into the United States. 

Srinagar, the capital city of Kashmir, makes very 
beautiful rugs from the finest wool. This is soft and 
silky, and as natural dyes are employed, the Srinagar 
rugs, as well as many other rugs from the northern por- 
tion of India, are highly valued. 

To show the beauty and delicacy of some of the old 
rugs, I may mention that one was made at Warangul^ 
in the sixteenth century, which contained 3,500,000 
knots on its entire surface, or 400 knots to the square 
inch, and the designs were so complicated, that a 
change of needle was required for every knot 

Leading importers now give names to designate the 
different qualities of India rugs, and therefore the name 
borne by a rug does not necessarily indicate the district 
in which it was woven. 

Size, 9. 5 X 7.6. 

This rug has a remarkably soft yet firm texture. 
The rough beauty and the fine coloring are very at- 
tractive. The field is a rich shade of red verging 
toward the hue of a blood orange, and again gleaming 
with far deeper hues. The large octagons are defined 
by a very narrow dark brown line. Two sides of these 
octagons are in a deep, sapphire blue, while the remain- 
ing two sides are of an orange cast. The octagon sec- 
tions are all ornamented, the small red diamonds at the 
edges being separated by dark green lines. The 
lattice-work design in the squares of the border of the 
rug are decorated with green and ivory, the latter in 
the hook design. The centres of all the octagons are 
of the orange shade, and one only is crossed through 
the centre, the markings being knots of green. Large 
diamond forms, barred with sapphire blue and rich 
green, are between the octagons on the field. Oc- 
casionally a small geometrical figure in either blue or 
green, with pale yellow or ivory, is seen. The rug was 
woven in that northern region of ^Afghanistan known 
as Afghan -Turkestan. 

Reproduced hy courtesy of Mr. George Huhbard Holt^ Chicago. 

India and Central Asia 7^ 

airing seems to be eflfective in carrying it away, 
although certain atmospheric changes are likely to 
affect it A damp, wet day brings out the odor 
strongly. Fortunately this disturbing element is not 
in all Afghan rugs. 

7^ Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Beluchistan Rugs 

There is a similarity in the designs of Beluchistan 
rugs to those of the Afghans and the Turkomans. The 
design is generally geometrical in part, and rather 
bold in effect, although not so striking as that of the 
Afghan. The coloring is mostly in dark shades of blue 
and red, often with lines of orange and white mixed 
with the reds and blues. There is a good deal of lustre 
in the rug, which is accounted for partly by the great 
abundance of horse hair, goat's hair, and camel's hair 
that is woven into it. The Beluch is a durable rug| 
and when in soft good colors is very pleasing. 

Some of the finest specimens are occasionally sold 
as blue Bokharas, and people who imagine that they 
have purchased one of the latter are likely to find them- 
selves the possessors of a good Beluch ; for there is no 
such thing as a blue Bokhara. 

India and Central Asia 73 

Turkoman Rugs 

Turkoman rugs are woven by nomad tribes living 
in Central Asia. The tribes are known as the Goklan, 
Sarik, Tekke, and Yomud, and all weave exquisite fab- 
rics ; they take the greatest care in every way to have 
their work perfectly done. In order to give fixity to the 
color the dyer steeps the wool in a mordant of alum 
and water ; the dye is almost invariably brought from 
Bokhara. At Ashkabad the Turkomans dye the wool 
themselves when it is intended to be yellow, but when 
any other shade is desired they send it to the city to be 
dyed. Often shades of green and brown are used as a 
foundation, and a beautiful rose shade is sometimes 
employed, on a creamy ground. 

One rug made by the Turkomans is of cameVs hair 
and when the hair is intended for this purpose the 
animal is most tenderly cared for. Every day, the camel 
is carefully washed, and all the loose hairs are saved to 
make the foundation of the rug. Sometimes rugs of this 
description have embroidered designs worked in them, 
and even the irregular designs in Turkoman rugs are 

74 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

supposed to bring good luck. The Turkoman rugs 
supply the market at Bokhara and Meshhed. The floors 
of native houses are usually covered with such rugs, 
each of which generally measures about six or seven 
feet long by four or five wide. They frequently have 
a fringe at each end. 

The Tekke Turkoman rugs are woven by the women 
of that tribe; they are known in this country as Bok- 
hara rugs. The design has little variety, and generally 
the rugs are among the easiest to distinguish. The 
design is usually octagon, in white or ivory tones upon 
a field of red or old rose. Sometimes orange and 
green are worked in, and frequently a rich blue. 
Brown and black, with white, are also used in the lines 
of division or in the border. Sometimes the designs 
of these rugs are more complex. The more markings 
they have, the better, and the white should be of the 
ivory tone, not the dead white, which conveys too 
strongly an appearance of newness. There is a man 
in the United States who has a secret process for dyeing 
Tekke Turkoman rugs a certain shade of brown, and 
people who have had their rugs changed to this color 
seem as a rule satisfied with the result. But what can 
improve the original color, especially when in the rich 
old red shades? 

The Tekke Turkomans use their rugs as portieres, 


Size, 6 X 3, 1. 

The field of this mat is of a deep rose hue, with a 
soft lustrous sheen. The texture is like velvet, and 
every stitch shows that the mat has been woven with 
the greatest care. The octagons are divided into four 
sections by distinct lines. The colors are orange, 
turquoise blue, and a deep blue with markings of yellow 
and ivory. Between the octagons are eight-pointed 
stars. The border is minute in detail, and the mat 
itself is a genuine treasure. 

Reproduced by courtesy of Mr, Ralph Oliver Smith, Chieago, 


India and Central Asia 


for divan coverings, and for floor coverings. Rich in 
coloring and very durable, these rugs are much prized. 
In the Yomud Turkoman rug the design most fre- 
quently seen is the diamond, surrounded by the hook. 
The weaving is very satisfactory, and the coloring in 
soft reds is particularly good. In some odd and rare 
pieces among the Yomud Turkomans, blue figures con- 
spicuously, as does green also. The border in these 
rugs is sometimes in stripes, sometimes in a sort of 
crudely drawn vine. 

7^ Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Other Turkoman Rugs 

The Genghis rugs are woven by a tribe of Turko- 
mans who live the life of nomads. They are named 
after Genghis Khan, the great Mogul conqueror who 
invaded Central Asia in the year 1 2 1 8. 

The Genghis rugs (often called Guendje) are woven 
of strong goat's hair or of wool, and have quite a long 
pile- The designs are in geometrical forms, and the 
color most abundantly used is white. 

Kashgar rugs are made in East Turkestan. They 
are quite coarse, with designs of a Chinese character 
in strong coloring. Yellows and a sort of lead-white 
are much used in these rugs; again blues and ivory 
white are seen, while reds, pinks, greens, and a deep 
orange are common. The Chinese fret, the dragon, 
and fishes are among the designs employed. The Tree 
of Life is of frequent occurrence, but is a crude 

Khiva rugs are woven by Turkomans inhabiting 
Central Asia. The firmness, durability, and bold 
grandeur of these rugs render them very pleasing. 

India and Central Asia n 

Well-toned shades of red, blue, tan, ivory, and an oc- 
casional green are the usual colors. Sometimes a 
Khiva has a long panel centre, with a prayer niche- In 
many fine specimens the lustre is an added attraction. 

Samarkand rugs are a product of Central Asia. 
They show distinctly Chinese characteristics. Some- 
times the field is covered with round medallions, from 
one to five in number, holding odd figures. The 
Chinese fret is common in the design, and sometimes a 
large crude flower arrangement is noticed. Reds, 
blues, a soft fawn, white, and much yellow, especially 
in the border, are the usual colors. Soft and heavy, 
these rugs have a distinctive character, and are attract- 
ive. Their texture, however, is quite thin, and they 
are not very durable. 

Yarkand rugs are very similar to Kashgar rugs, 
having the same general characteristics. 

7S Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Caucasian Rugs 

Caucasus is a general government belonging to 
Russia, and including Transcaucasia. The designs of 
the many rugs woven in this section of country are all 
parts of a system, and each design bears certain marks 
whereby its class may be identified. 

Daghestan rugs are made in fine wools, and the 
mosaic designs are generally beautifully and skillfully 
done. The figures are nearly always geometrical, and 
in the form of diamonds, long octagons, lozenges, 
hooks, and small crosses. The colors of the best 
Daghestans are so well selected, that although there is 
no shading there is seldom anything aggressive or 
startling in the effect. Blues, reds, yellows, ivory, 
and other hues are chiefly used. The rug has a short, 
close pile, and although the texture is rather thin, the 
rug is very durable. 

Derbent rugs, though woven at Derbent, the chief 
city of the province of Daghestan, differ somewhat 
from the Daghestans proper, being much softer and 
thicker. They are also more loosely woven, and have 


/"^ • 

bizc, 7 X 3.5. 

This rug has a fine texture and is straighter than 
most Daghcstans. It is an antique, but its colors are 
as fast and clear as when it was first woven. It has 
been cleaned again and again, but nothing seems to dim 
its hues. The field of light blue is thickly studded with 
large and small geometrical figures in reds, yellow^s, 
and white. Some of the forms are in the lozenge 
design, with colors in red and yellow, the reds contain- 
ing fine shadings of blue. Again square forms are 
seen, many holding the same colors, ornamented with 
contrasting but harmonious hues. In the centre are 
two geometrical figures of considerable size, one in 
yellow, and one in red. Each of these has yellow and 
w^hite in its centre. On either side are still larger 
forms in yellow and 1)1 ue. The border is geometrical, 
the hook desiirn in a bracket beinif in evidence, and 
outside of this is a narrower stripe in red, white, black, 
and yellow. The many markings add greatly to the 
beauty of this interesting- Dai^hestan. 

Reproduce J l/y courtesy of Mr, Frank E, BurUy^ Chicago, 

India and Central Asia 79 

a longer pile. The designs are geometrical, several 
star devices often occupying the field ; and here again 
we see the hook, which is a feature of the entire Dag- 
hestan province. There is a good lustre in the Derbent 
rugs, and the coloring is often quiet and inconspicuous 
in dark blue, red, yellow, and ivory. Sometimes a 
soft pink is noticed . 

Kabistan (Cabistan) rugs are woven at Kuba. They 
resemble the Daghestans to such an extent that they 
are often sold under that name. They have, however, 
more variety of design, although, as in the Daghestans, 
the diamond is generally a prominent feature, and often 
three large and many small diamonds are seen. The 
palm leaf is of common occurrence, and occasionally 
different colored stripes occur throughout the entire 
field. Soft reds, greens, a delicate fawn, and browns 
are the usual colors. The borders may be in stripes, 
or with crude animal or bird devices. 

Karabagh rugs have characteristics of the other 
Caucasian rugs, but are more crude in coloring. Red 
is the chief color used. The rugs are coarse and quite 
crude in effect. 

Kazak rugs are woven by a nomad tribe dwelling 
among the Caucasus mountains. There is a certain 
strength and vigor about the Kazak rugs that seems to 
be in harmony with the tribe that weaves them. The 

8o Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

word Kazak is a corruption of Cossack ; and the dura- 
bility of these rugs, as well as a certain boldness of ef* 
feet in their designs and colors, corresponds with the 
hardihood of the people who weave them. The rugs 
are thick and soft; their colors are blues, soft reds, and 
greens. Often the field is a deep rose or a green, 
sometimes with one or more geometrical figures, or 
with the palm leaf design in rather large size through- 
out When the palm leaf is used, it is generally 
decorated with a smaller leaf of a different hue. Many 
varieties of small designs are also seen, including 
circles, diamonds, squares, and the tau cross, which is 
almost always present Some of the antique Kazaks 
are very fine. 

Shirvan rugs are attractive from their quiet, agree- 
able tints, and fine, even texture. They are made in 
large quantities, and readily sold. The best are of 
white wool, but the inferior ones may hold cotton or 
goat's hair. Often blues and whites are the colors em- 
ployed, with markings of red or yellow. Sometimes 
there are stripes in the border, one wide stripe followed 
by a series of narrow ones. The hook is a frequent 
design, and may be found in the field, incasing some 
geometrical figure. Sometimes a conventionalized 
floral design is observed in the border. 

India and Central Asia 8r 

Saumak rugs ought really to be called Shemakha, 
for that is the name of the town in the government of 
Baku from which they are exported. But the contrac- 
tion of the word into Soumak is now universal. Er- 
roneously too, these rugs are known as "Kashmir, "^ 
for the sole reason that they are woven with a flat stitch 
and the loose ends are left hanging at the back, just as 
they are in the old Kashmir shawls. The designs bear 
a resemblance to those of the Daghestans, and the 
hook is omnipresent. The best are durable, and some- 
times a rarely beautiful Soumak is discovered, dis- 
tinguished from the ordinary specimens by its soft hues 
and fine texture. One that I have in mind is of a rich 
blue field, with geometrical figures in terra cotta shades, 
and a rare bit of green in the way of ornamentation: 
the field of another is rose, and the geometrical forms 
are in deep blues, old blues, and ivory. 

Tehechen (Chichi or Tzitzi) rugs are made by the 
Chichi nomads living among the mountains of Dag- 
hestan. The rugs have a strong resemblance to the 
Shirvans, and are often sold under that name. They 
are of about the same color and quality, but are wider. 
In the border there are frequently geometrical designs 
arranged between two or more stripes, and the tau 
cross is sometimes seen. 






Polish Rugs 

/TT^HERE are few of the so-called Polish rugs in 
-** existence, and these are priceless and cannot be 
bought They are mostly seven feet long by four wide. 
The name takes its origin from the fact that a Pole (by 
name Mersherski), after traveling in Persia and India, 
established a rug factory in Warsaw. 

Polish rugs are of silk with gold and silver thread 
interwoven. Their texture is looser than that of the 
usual Oriental rug, and for this reason they cannot 
stand hard wear; but they are exceedingly handsome 
with their gold lustre and silky sheen. In these rugs a 
number of warp threads are crossed by the metal threads 
and overspread, so that the lines or ribs are brought 
out more prominently. This in part accounts for the 
softness and looseness of the texture. 

86 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Silk Rugs 

Long before other countries learned the art of cul- 
tivating silk worms, China was at work weaving fabrics 
of silk. Chinese historians claim that the origin of reel- 
ing silk and putting it to use was discovered by a woman 
— Se-Ling-She, wife of Hwang-te, third Emperor of 
China — and for that reason she has always been re- 
garded by them as the "goddess of silk worms." The 
date of this discovery is about b. c. 264a For about 
two thousand years the Chinese kept secret their 
methods of reeling and weaving silk, but finally Japan, 
Persia, and India learned the art, Persia having for 
many centuries transported raw silk between China and 
the West Very slowly grew the process of silk weav- 
ing. Greece, Spain, and Sicily by degrees attained the 
knowledge. In a. d. 550 it was introduced into Con- 
stantinople, and in 1148 silk manufacture was carried 
into Italy, and the cultivation of mulberry trees was 
enforced by law. The industry soon spread into the 
south of France, where it rapidly advanced. 

At the present day enormous quantities of silk are 

Size, 5.8 X 4. 12. 

This remarkable rug in some lights suggests the 
heart of a forest. Some of its sections indicate Chinese 
inspiration, and recall, too, the famous Hunting Rugs; 
but it was undoubtedly woven in the neighborhood of 
Meshhed, in the province of Khorassan. The thick 
texture, the long pile, and the look of the animals afford 
evidence in support of this conclusion. The field is in 
an unusual shade of reddish bronze, with a strong 
metallic lustre. In certain lights the surface looks like 
a mass of gleaming gold. In the centre stands the Tree 
of Life, its branches rich with foliage, among which 
birds of bright plumage seem to flutter. At the base 
of the tree, two wild animals are depicted, apparently 
in search of prey. In the corner areas at the top of 
the rug two serpents are attacking young birds in a 
nest, w^hich is guarded by an agitated parent bird. On 
either side at the base of the rug is a cypress tree. 
Across the top is an inscription in Arabic, which has 
been variously translated. 

Reproduced by courtesy of Mrs, Emmons Blaine, Chicago. 

Miscellaneous Oriental Rugs ^7 

produced in various parts of the world. The principal 
countries are China, Japan, India, Southern Europe, 
and some parts of Persia and Asia Minor. During the 
Middle Ages and down to the seventeenth century, the 
province of Ghilan in'Persia produced very fine silk and 
in large quantities. In all the countries and districts 
just mentioned, magnificent silk rugs have been woven 
for many centuries. 

The silk rug when at its best is unsurpassed in 
beauty; it is distinguished by its richness, exquisite 
coloring, and rare sheen. But silk rugs require the 
most luxurious surroundings: nothing looks so out of 
place as one of these costly fabrics of the loom in a 
poor setting. They are more suitable for decorative 
purposes and museums than for service ; they should be 
used as hangings, not for floor coverings. An exquisite 
silk rug interwoven with pearls is hung before the 
famous Peacock Throne of the Shah at Teheran, Persia. 

The most magnificent silk rugs have been woven in 
China, and these are interesting from every point of 
view, especially as regards history, color, and texture. 
The silk rugs of Khotan are remarkable for their beauty 
and fineness; on important occasions of state and cere- 
mony the Chinese place them upon the table. 

In making silk rugs, the greatest care is necessary 
in the shading. Sometimes the shading of woolen rugs 
is made more effective by the addition of silk. 

90 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

The modem Chinese rugs are vastly different from 
those of antiquity. There is» however, much of interest 
attached to them. They are sought because of their 
antique designs, their harmonious coloring, and their 
durability. The monstrous and fantastic forms that dis- 
tinguished the antique are not so frequently met with 
in the modem production. The predominating colors 
in a modem Chinese rug are yellow, blue, white, and 
fawn, and these are arranged very effectively. The 
designs are quaint and odd. 

In the northern part of China rugs are decorated 
with colored threads in crude imitation of figures; they 
are woven in sections, and then sewed together. 
Camel's hair of a coarse quality is used extensively by 
the Chinese for their rugs, and the laboring class use 
felts in their houses. These are cheap and durable and 
are placed on the tiled floors so common in the colder 
parts of China. The skin of the doe, deer, and fox are 
much used in China as rugs. These skins are sewed 
together in sections, according to various designs, and 
resemble mosaic work. 

There are more circular rugs found in China than 
in any other country, and some are exported. But they 
are seldom called for in this country, and clerks in the 
large establishments which import them express surprise 
when inquiries are made for them. 


Size, 7. 10 X 5.2. 

The modern Chinese wool rugs are not at all like this 
antique specimen, which was woven in Shantung- about 
the year 1750. The material is of wool, the pile is 
very thick and soft, and the texture, though loosely 
woven, is lasting. A large circular form in the centre 
of the field is richly decorated in a fine blue, yellow, 
and white floral design. Ivory is also seen in the 
markings, but no other colors are used except light 
yellow and a deep blue. The field is of a rare apricot 
hue, very unusual and beautiful. The border holds a 
Chinese fret design, the symbol of long life. This is 
in a rich deep blue, and the outmost part of it is in 
a dark shade of blue. The separate sprays of flowers 
on this rug represent the tea flower, which the Chinese 
use for decorative purposes, and the larger sprays hold 
the imperial flower. 

Reproduced by courtesy of Messrs. J, A, Vantine ^ O., New York. 

Miscellaneous Oriental Rugs 9^ 

Japanese Rugs 

The Japanese have been skilled weavers for many 
centuries, and the growth of textile industries among 
these people has been greatly increased by the intro- 
duction of fine cotton yarns of uniform quality. The 
modern Japanese rugs are made of cotton or jute, and 
are used extensively in the United States in summer 
homes. In the towns which produce these, little children 
may be seen busily engaged in weaving, their small 
fingers being very deft at this work. 

The chief colors employed by the Japanese in their 
rug-weaving are blue, white, and sometimes a beauti- 
ful pink. In weaving, designing, and coloring, as in 
everything else the natives do, their exactness of finish 
and thoroughness in detail are noticeable. The Persian 
designs which were once reproduced in Japan, are now 
supplanted by designs purely Japanese. 

92 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Rugs of the Holjr Land 

No rugs of importance are woven in Palestine. In 
several villages there is made a coarse cloth, water- 
proof because of its firm texture. It is used for cloaks 
or abas, and these are worn by all the men of the land. 
In Bethlehem is made the coarse cloth which is used as 
tent covering. This is produced from the sombre hair 
of the Palestine goat In Damascus a few rugs are 
woven, but not of any great value or beauty. 

Miscellaneous Oriental Rugs 93 

Prayer Rugs 

The prayer rug is so distinctly sui generis that it 
requires a little explanation. It is to be found wherever 
dwell the followers of Mahomet, and the design 
usually includes a representation of a mosque, or place 
of public worship, showing the mihrab, which is the 
niche in the wall of the mosque, so located that when 
the worshipper prostrates himself before it he will be 
prostrating himself toward Mecca. * 

The Mohammedan, if he build a mosque, locates it 
so that its axis extends in the direction of Mecca; in 
such buildings the mihrab is not necessary, as the nat- 
ural position of the worshipper places him so that his 
face is toward the sacred city. Where Christian build- 
ings, such as the great Basilica of St Sophia at Con- 
stantinople have been appropriated for Moslem worship, 
the niche or mihrab may be located well toward one 
corner of the building. 

* Some Prayer rugs htve t representation of the hands of Mahomet, and 
on them the suppliant places his own as he throws himself prostrate. In the 
comers of some of these rugs pulpits are represented, and occasionally trees. 

94 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

The prayer rug was evidently invented for the pur- 
pose of providing the worshippers with one absolutely 
clean place on which to offer prayers. It is not lawful 
for a Moslem to pray on any place not perfectly clean, 
and unless each one has his own special rug he is not 
certain that the spot has not been polluted With 
regard to the purity of the place of prayer Moham- 
medans are especially careful when making their pil- 
grimages, the rugs which they take with them having 
been preserved from pollution by being rolled up until 
the journey is begun, or until the hour of prayer arrives. 
It does not matter to these followers of Mahomet 
how unclean a rug that is on the floor may be, because 
over it they place the prayer rug when their devotions 

About two hundred years ago small embroidered 
rugs were largely made in Persia, chiefly at Ispahan. 
These were prayer rugs, and on each of them, near one 
end, was a small embroidered mark to show where the bit 
of sacred earth from Mecca was to be placed. In obe- 
dience to a law in the Koran that the head must be 
bowed to the ground in prayer, this was touched by the 
forehead when the prostrations were made, and so the 
letter of the law was carried out The custom still pre- 
vails. The Persian women who make the finest prayer 
rugs seldom weave any other kind of rug. 


Size, 6x4.1. 

This beautiful and rare rug has an ivory field thickly 
studded with small floral designs woven most carefully. 
The knots are very closely tied, and the texture is soft 
and fine as velvet. A cypress tree occupies the centre 
of the field, and above its base on either side appears 
the head of a bird. Below there are two peacocks, in 
gorgeous plumage. The upper parts of the bodies of 
the peacocks seem actually to glisten like cloth-of-gold ; 
silk threads appear in the tail feathers. At the top of 
the rug rests a bird of brilliant plumage, and on either 
side a bird evidently in the act of flying. The border 
of this fine rug is in stripes, the widest of a golden hue, 
with turquoise blue, light green, and soft reds in deli- 
cate tracery. The corner areas are deep and very 
minutely woven, corresponding perfectly with the field. 
Toward the centre of the corner areas and extending 
upward, is the mihrab, proclaiming for what purpose 
this rug was woven. 

Reproduced by courtesy of Miss Buckingham^ Chicago, 

Miscellaneous Oriental Rugs 95 

As a class the modern Anatolian prayer rugs are 
quite inferior, being woven irregularly, and without 
regard to details or finishing; yet there are among 
them some fine specimens of Anatolian weaving. The 
best are woven at Ghiordes. The antique Ghiordes 
rugs are really fine in colors, generally with much pale 
green, red, or blue. The design most frequently seen 
is the Tree of Life. One special kind is distinguished 
by a yellow vine on a dark blue field 

9^ Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Hunting Rugs 

The hunting rugs of Persia are the most remark- 
able and interesting rugs in existence. They had their 
origin in the Chinese pictures of hunting scenes, from 
which they were copied. They were undoubtedly 
made as early as the sixteenth century, for the Shah. 
Exquisite in their weaving, marvelous in coloring, and 
of rare sheen, they are worthy of the closest attention. 
Nor is this their only merit; they serve as records of 
ancient customs, depicting the method of the chase, and 
portraying the mounted hunters in pursuit of the 
elephant, lion, phoenix, deer, and other creatures 
(fabulous and real). There are perhaps twelve of these 
precious rugs in existence. One belongs to the Im- 
perial House of Austria, another to Baron Adolphe 
Rothschild, a third is in the Berlin Museum, and a fourth 
may be seen at the Boston Museum. 

Miscellaneous Oriental Rugs 97 

The Felt Rug 

A large and heavy rug is made in the Orient of 
felt This is used extensively by the natives, but is too 
heavy to export Even the shepherds of the Kotan- 
Daria and of the Keriya-Daria use it in their primitive 
and isolated abodes. Sometimes an old felt rug is 
propped up by poles and becomes a tent, in which dwell 
the shepherds of Central Asia. 

This felt rug is made of the hair of the camel, goat, 
or sheep, or by a mixture of all these kinds. It is 
matted together by heavy and constant pounding, 
moistened with water, turned and beaten again and 
again until it becomes compact and solid. Sometimes 
the felts are decorated with colored threads and often 
the name of the weaver is woven in. Among the best 
felts are those made at Astrabad and Yezd. 

In color felts are grey, brown, or white. The last 
named are woven at Khotan. No dye is used; the hue 
is that of the hair of the animal, or the composite hue 
resulting from the mixture of the hair of different 

9^ Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

The felts have no seams, and are from one to four 
inches thick. Although this material is of far more 
ancient date than the days of St Clement, a legend 
connects his name with the discovery of felt The 
tradition is that while on a pilgrimage the Saint, having 
put a wad of carded wool into his shoes to protect his 
feet from blisters, found at the end of his journey that 
the pressure and moisture had converted the wool into 

Miscellaneous Oriental Rugs 99 

Khilim Rugs 

( Writtbn Also Ghilksm, Kiliii, Kilim ) 

The largest number of Khilims are woven in Turkish 
Kurdistan, although many are made in the adjoining 
territory, and at Sinna and Shirvan. They are also 
woven by the nomads of Anatolia and Merv, and Turkey 
in Europe now produces many Khilims, especially in 
the vicinity of Servia. 

Khilims are made in different sizes, and are alike 
on both sides. Perhaps the Khilims most familiar to us 
are those which are long and narrow. But there are 
also smaller sizes, the smallest of all being called mats. 
All are without nap, and are woven with the flat stitch 
by the means of shuttles. 

Karminian is another name given to this decorative 
piece of tapestry. The Karminian is woven in the tents 
of the nomad Yuruks and other Turkoman tribes. 
Occasionally this weave and the Kurdish resemble the 
prayer rug in having a niche at one end. 

A bit of romantic sentiment is woven into the Kis 
Khilims, as those made by the Turks in Anatolia are 
often called. It is asserted that the word means ' 'Bride's 

loo Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

rug, ' ' and that the name is derived from the fact that 
these rugs are woven by young girls, each of whom 
endeavors to finish her rug in time to win a husband. 
A lock of hair is often found in the Kis Khilim, said to 
have been woven in by the girl who made it 

In Oriental countries the Khilim is often used as a 
curtain to divide the dwelling portion of the tent from 
that in which the cattle are sheltered from the storm. 
It is also used by the natives on their journeys, and for 
general wear on the floors. 

In the United States this fabric is exceedingly popu- 
lar as a hanging, or for the cover of a divan it is 
equally effective, whether used in the home or in the 


Size, 7. 2 X 4.6. 

As a representative Derbent rug, this is an excel- 
lent example. It has the soft thick texture and long 
pile characterizing this product of the Caucasus. The 
entire dark blue field is covered with well-proportioned 
lozenge-shaped forms, distinctly outlined with serrated 
lines. Every centre has a cross of a contrasting color, 
from the form containing it. The main border stripe is 
geometrical, with a variety of the hook design. 
Several floral devices are arranged in the maroon 
stripes on either side the wide one. There is a good 
deal of lustre to the rug, and the coloring is particularly 
charming in fine blues, soft rose, fawn, copper brown, 
subdued yellows, ivory, and rich green. 

Reproduced by courtesy of the author. 

lnj;A.,t..>r-... . ... .j,.)^i\li%}ij\\l^ft(0 







TN the preparation of this section of the work, there 
-^ has been no attempt or desire to slight in any way 
the weaving industry of the West It has not seemed 
advisable, however, to go into many details on the sub- 
ject, for it is one easily learned from many sources by 
any one who desires. There is not the mystery about 
Occidental weaving that there is about Oriental, the 
latter perhaps appealing to our innate desire of acquir- 
ing knowledge difficult of access. A short account of 
rug-weaving in the Occident will, therefore, be quite 
as satisfactory to the general reader as a more lengthy 

I04 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Greece, etc* 

Greek rugs are almost as ancient as Greece herself. 
From time immemorial they have constituted a most 
important part of the dowry of young girls from the 
provinces. They are, however, not often seen outside 
of their own country, for the weavers cannot be pre- 
vailed upon to sell them. 

Greek rugs are of two kinds — the heavy ones which 
serve for floor coverings in the winter, and the thinner, 
which are used all the year round. Both are made of 
home-produced wool, often with hemp weft, and are 
worked by women and girls only, in wooden looms of 
a primitive order. 

The Arab conquerors of Spain, or the Moors as they 
are often called, are believed to have taught the Vene- 
tians the art of rug- weaving. The rugs now known as 
Moorish are made by the decendants of this race, who 
live outside of the Spanish border. Their leading color 
is yellow, and in style and quality they resemble the 
so-called Smyrna rug. 

The antique Moorish rugs are found in the Cathe- 
drals of Toledo and Seville. These are relics of the 
thirteenth century. 


Size, 6 X 3.8. 

A deep, soft pile, firmness of texture, and superb 
coloring", characterize this rug. The lower section of 
the field is of cherry-red ; the upper portion is a lighter 
shade of red, but blending perfectly, and forming by 
its shape at the top the niche which is characteristic of 
the prayer rug. This extends into the wonderful moss 
green of the upper section. The two tones (which ap- 
pear exaggerated in the black and white plate) suggest 
the thought of a passing shadow upon a mossy bed. 
The red and green of the field are separated by heavy 
serrated lines of ivory, which unite at the top, leading 
up to and inclosing a small red lozenge, terminating 
beyond this in the hook design. It is in the centre of 
the lozenge that the Moslem places the stone or bit of 
earth when at prayer. Other hook designs and various 
geometrical forms are arranged upon the field. The 
wide stripe of the border is of a fine yellow, rich and 
lustrous, decorated in blue, green, and maroon devices. 
The outer border is in brown, and it is interesting to 
observe the series of nomad tents represented, each 
one worked in white wool, the entrances to the tents, 
however, being in reds, blues, or yellows. Alternat- 
ing with each little dwellinof are ficfures worked in 
red, blue, or green. This interesting rug is a product 
of C.'L'sarea. 

Rf^iroUuciJ .h\ courtesx of Mr. Gecrj^e Hubbard Holty Chicago, 

Rug- Weaving in the Occident ^^5 

France, etc. 

The art of rug-weaving was first introduced into the 
West by the Moors when they conquered Spain. With 
the advance of civilization it proceeded to the land of 
the Gauls, where during the reign of Henry the Fourth it 
was brought from Persia. An inventor named Dupont 
was placed in charge of a workroom by the king, in the 
Palais du Louvre about the year 1605. In the year 
1 62 1 an apprentice of Dupont's named Lourdes, was 
instructed to establish the industry of weaving in a 
district near Paris, where was the Hospice de la Savon- 
nerie, an institution for poor children. The factory 
was called la Savonnerie because the building had been 
previously used for the manufacture of soap. Since 
1825 la Savonnerie has been consolidated with the 
Gobelins manufactory. In 1664, Colbert, minister to 
Louis the Fourteenth, founded the establishment at 
Beauvais which is owned by the French Government, 
as is also that of the Gobelins, which Colbert bought of 
the Gobelin family. But it is to the Saracens that 
France ultimately owes the origin of her famous 

io6 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

tapestries, and it is to the Saracens, through France, 
that Western and Northern Europe trace their ob- 

The industry has attained large proportions in 
France. At Aubusson alone over two thousand work- 
men are employed in rug-weaving. A fine specimen 
of the work done there is a rug of Oriental design made 
for a collector in New York. The piece-work system 
is now generally used throughout the weaving districts 
of France. The manufacturers themselves usually place 
the rugs on the market France buys the greater quan- 
tity, although many are exported. 

Austria -Hungary, Germany, Holland, and Italy 
have also had some experience in rug-weaving, and 
even little Switzerland at one time attempted its intro- 
duction, but with unsatisfactory results. Belgium, 
however, was more successful, for Brussels still pro- 
duces a large number of rugs. 

Rug- Weaving in the Occident ^^7 

Great Britain 

In England the introduction of tapestries as hang- 
ings for walls was made by Eleanora, sister of Alfonso 
the Tenth of Castile, when she became the wife of 
Edward the First In her journeyings these fabrics of 
the loom were carried as part of the royal baggage, and 
must have given some sense of cheer, particularly when 
they clothed the bare walls of the dreary castle of 

Edward the Third (132 7- 137 7) invited Flemish weav- 
ers to settle in England. At that time England produced 
wool in large quantities, although very few fabrics were 
woven there, nine-tenths of the wool being sent to 
Ghent or Bruges to be manufactured; for the Flemish 
were the first people in the northern part of Europe 
who advanced in the arts and in manufactures. 
Throughout Northern and Western Europe rugs were 
seldom used, except for wall hangings and table covers, 
until the time of the Reformation in Germany. 

Great Britain is now quite active in the manufacture 
of rugs with certain designs, a decided impetus to the 

io8 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

improvement of this industry being given by Mr. 
William Morris, the English poet and artistic decora- 
tor, who was born near London in 1834. 

The Morris Rug. With strong, firm texture, fine 
vegetable dyes, and with purely artistic designs, the 
Morris rug bears testimony to-day to the honesty, per- 
severance, and skill of the man for whom it is named. 
He himself testifies: ''I am an artist or workman with 
a strong inclination to exercise what capacities I may 
have — a determination to do nothing shabby if I can 
help it ' ' Decorative art in many branches is the richer 
to-day for the influence of Mr. Morris, but it is his 
rug-making that now claims attention. Mr. Bernhard 
Quaritch informs me in a letter dated August 31, 1899, 
that Mr. Morris learned the art of making rugs from a vol- 
ume of the work entitled * * Descriptions des Arts et Met- 
iers. ' ' Mr. Morris had his own loom, and not only wove 
rugs, but dyed the wool for them himself, and instructed 
pupils, to whom his inspiration was a power. Long and 
laboriously he worked to achieve the best results, using 
vegetable dyes only, and he was finally successful. No 
dyer of the Orient could have been more pleased than 
was he when his efforts resulted in soft, glowing tints. 

In design Mr. Morris excelled. He educated the 
popular taste by bringing forth the beauties of the 
simpler forms of the floral and vegetable world; he 

Size, 24.8 X 15. 

This is a most unusual antique Feraghan. It is rare 
to find an antique of such enormous size, and the 
marvelous sheen and good preservation of the rug 
render it a choice specimen. The texture is like velvet 
in its softness, the Persian knotting is firm, and the 
shadings of green, rose, blue, yellow, purple, violet, 
and red all blend in perfect harmony. The pile is even, 
and the border with its exquisite hues is a study in color 
blending. The green of the widest border-stripe is 
particularly reposeful in effect. 

Reproduced by courtesy of Messrs. Marshall Field ^ Co,, Chicago. 

Rug- Weaving in the Occident ^^9 

delighted especially in displaying the acanthus in varied 
conventional forms. Every rug he designed bears 
witness to his enthusiasm for harmony. Too aesthetic, 
some critics declare him to have been ; but no one can 
deny the importance of his creations, for England 
needed to be awakened to a knowledge of her own 
inability to appreciate artistic decoration of the home, 
especially by means of the productions of the loom. It 
was this very fact, and his inability to procure artistic 
furniture such as would satisfy his aesthetic taste, that 
started Mr. Morris to create those fabrics which he 

iio Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

The United States 

The United States is largely occupied in rug- 
weaving, and the centre of the Eastern section of this 
manufacture is Philadelphia. But in various sections 
of the country there are rug factories, both large and 

The Abenakei rug is made at Pequaket, New 
Hampshire. It is the result of a desire on the part 
of Mrs. Helen R. Albee to give profitable employment 
to the women of the rural community where she lives. 
Her success is now assured, and the reward for much 
labor and thought has come in a lively demand for 
the rug. 

The Abenakee rugs are not woven. They are an 
evolved form of the much despised New England 
hooked rug, which was made by drawing strips of old 
rag through burlap. The thick, soft, velvety Abenakee 
rugs of the present day are far removed in color, 
design, and texture from their humble ancestors. These 
rugs are all wool, hand-dyed in warm tones of terra- 
cotta, old rose, old pink, tans, dull yellows, rich old 

Rug- Weaving in the Occident "^ 

blues, olive and sage greens, and old ivory. They are 
made to order usually, to match in their ground color 
some special color in the room where they are to be 
placed, and the borders are made in harmonious tones. 
The range of design is wide, from Oriental to Oc- 
cidental — from Japanese to North American Indian. 
But all suggestions, so soon as received, are modified 
and removed as far as possible from direct imitation of 
any foreign rugs. Mrs. Albee has aimed, not to re- 
produce Oriental effects, but to have the designs 
original and distinctive. Fortunately, for years previous 
to the establishment to this industry, she had studied 
the principles of design and its application to various 
textiles, and the knowledge which she thus acquired 
has proved most valuable. 

The designs are bold and effective, but fineness of 
detail is precluded by the strips of material, each of 
which is a quarter of an inch wide. The color is 
arranged in broad masses. 

The New England Hooked or Rag rug has for its 
foundation a strip of burlap or sacking. Through this, 
strips of cloth are hooked, which form loops, and this 
surface may be sheared or not, as the maker desires. 
There is such an absence of attractiveness in the old- 
time rag rug, that several women of taste and experience 
in art methods have sought the improvement of this 

I" Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

industry. The results have been excellent, so that, 
ugly as the original rug is, it is esteemed as being the 
progenitor of the more artistic Abenakee, Sabatos, and 
Onteora rugs. 

The Sabatos rug is a product of the little mountain- 
ous village of Center Lovell, M^ne. The untiring efforts 
of Mrs, Douglas Volk of New York have succeeded in 
developing the rug and starting this industry, and she 
has now about a dozen women engaged in the work, 
this number including the spinners, dyers, and weavers. 

The Sabatos rug is durable, harmonious in color 
and design, and is distinctly a home product The 
wool of which it is made is sheared from the flocks 
of sheep in the vicinity. The shearing takes place 
annually in June; the wool is then carded, spun, and 
dyed. The threads of hand-spun wool are worked 
through a hand-woven webbing, and securely knotted 
or tied with a specially devised knot The designs thus 
far are mainly adaptations from the native American 
Indian motives, which are simple and characteristic, 
furnishing a chance for broad color effects. 

A special point is made of the dyes employed, those 
of vegetable origin ruling, and only those dyes which 
from experience have been found to be practically fast 
are used, — such for instance as genuine old Indigo 
blue, madder root, and butternut 

Rug- Weaving in the Occident ^^3 

The Onteora rug receives its name from a little 
village nestling among the Catskill Mountains. It 
owes its existence to Mrs, Candace Wheeler, the well- 
known artistic decorator and writer, of New York. 
Still in its experimental state, the Onteora rug is prom- 
isingly successful. The idea Mrs. Wheeler and her 
assistants are carrying out is that of making an ordinary 
rag rug upon an old-fashioned Colonial loom, and 
weaving into it artistic designs. For this purpose 
** piece ends" of colored denims are bought from 
Southern mills. These are for the filling, and can be 
arranged and varied in color very effectively. The 
designs are in blocks, stripes, and arrows. This industry 
is not yet upon a sufficiently large scale to warrant the 
establishment of warp dyeing, but later Mrs. Wheeler 
expects to accomplish this result, which she believes 
is necessary to the best effects. 

Berea College, Kentucky, is endeavoring to encour- 
age the weaving of rag rugs of a superior order. So 
far, the industry is in a primitive state, the natives pre- 
ferring to weave cotton and wool coverlets, for floor 
rugs they consider troublesome. The weaving is carried 
on in the homes throughout the mountains of that 
region known as ** Appalachian America;" and is really 
a survival of the New England Industry. 

"4 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Navajo Rugs. The Navajo Indian Reservation 
covers about eleven thousand square miles, about six 
hundred and fifty of which are in the north-west comer 
of New Mexico, and the remainder in the north-east 
portion of Arizona. The region is well adapted for the 
raising of sheep, and every family possesses flocks, 
which are driven from place to place for pasture. The 
Navajos, however, never go to any great distance for 
this, but keep generally within a radius of fifty or sixty 
miles from home. This tribe weaves a rug that is 
useful, unique, durable, and when at its best, impervious 
to rain. 

It is believed that the Spaniards, when they arrived 
in that section of North America inhabited by the Pueblo 
tribe of Indians, communicated to them the industry of 
weaving these rugs, and that the Pueblos taught it to 
the Navajos. Thus it appears that the weaving of the 
Navajo rug was a result of the Moors' invasion of 
Europe. The sheep, which are raised by thousands, 
were also introduced by the Spaniards. The wool is 
not washed until after the shearing. About twenty-five 
years ago the Navajos began to use the shears of the 
white man ; previously they procured the wool by cut- 
ting it off the body of the animal with a knife, and 
pulling it from the legs. 

The native dyes are red, yellow, and black, and the 

Size, 3. 9 X 4. 9. 

The field of this Navajo mat is in a natural shade of 
greyish white. Six large diamond forms in black, with 
reddish edges and white centres, rest on the field. The 
centres contain a tiny red line, and there are smaller 
diamonds — seven in number — four having red centres 
and the remainder black, and at one end are two small 
figures. The border is in stripes of red, black, and an 
addition of white. The mat is a fine sample of the 
American Indian weaving, and its simplicity places it in 
striking and pleasing contrast to many of the modern 
productions of the Navajos. 

Reproduced by courtesy of Mr. Frank E. Bur ley ^ Chicago. 

Rug- Weaving in the Occident ^^5 

natural colors of the wool are black, grey, and white. 
The dyes of the white man are now much used. 
Formerly there was a beautiful blue, which has given 
way to the indigo. A scarlet cloth called Bayeta was 
once much used in the weaving of these rugs, but 
Germantown yarn and other inventions of the white 
man have largely superseded the old-time materials 
and methods. 

The spindle is of the crudest form, and sometimes 
the wool is simply picked out from the mass, and rolled 
into the yarn or thread on the hand. 

The looms are fashioned after the most primitive 
ones of tV Orient, and the weaver sits on the ground 
and weaves upward. Women do most of the weaving, 
but occasionally a dusky faced man may be seen at the 
loom. It takes about a month to weave a rug six feet 
ten inches by five feet seven inches. 

The designs in the Navajo rugs are many, and 
mostly in angles and straight lines. The weaver 
makes up her own designs as she goes along, occasion- 
ally only tracing it in the sand. 

There is a symbolism attached to many forms in 
these rugs. The square with four knit corners repre- 
sents the four quarters of heaven and the four winds. 
A tau cross is a symbol of protection and safety, and a 
prayer to the great spirit A spiral form represents 

11^ Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

the purified soul, and a double spiral is a symbol of the 
soul's struggle. A wave mark represents the sea, over 
which the people came from a far country. Black is 
the symbol of water, regarded as the mother or spirit. 
Red is the symbol of fire, and is regarded as the 

The native costume of the women of the Navajo 
tribe consists of two small rugs in dark blue or black, 
with a bright stripe at each end. They are of the same 
size, and sewed together at the sides, except where a 
place is left open for the arms. Formerly the Indians 
reserved their hand-made rugs for their own use, but 
now that there is so great a demand for the work of 
their hands, they sell those rugs, and content them- 
selves with blankets of factory make. 

Old Navajo rugs, like Oriental ones, are growing 
scarcer every year, and naturally are becoming more 
valuable and desirable. The fine textures, perfect 
workmanship, and glowing colors are seen at their best 
in productions of the past 




Inscriptions on Rugs 

XT 7E are occasionally indebted to an Oriental 
^ ^ scholar for a translation of an inscription on a 
rug ; often these inscriptions show the religious belief 
of the maker. 

One fine rug in a museum in Austria has the fol- 
lowing inscription: ''Allah! No God exists besides 
Him, the Living, the Eternal. Nothing causes Him 
to slumber or to sleep. To Him belongs everything 
in heaven and on earth. Who can intercede with Him 
without His permission? He knows what is before 
and what is behind, and only so much of His wisdom 
can be grasped as He permits. His throne fills heaven 
and earth, and the support of both to Him is easy. 
He is the High One, the Exalted ! " 

A rug of Persian weave owned by Baron Nathaniel 
Rothschild has, worked in the oval cartouches, an in- 
scription translated by Professor F. Bayer as follows : 

I20 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

1. ''Honored mayst thou be in the worldt 
Among the clever and wise. 

2. May no sorrow be allotted thee by an unfavor- 

ing heaven, 
And may no care torment thy heart 

3. May earth be all to thee that thou wouldst 

have it, and destiny prove thy friend. 
May high heaven be thy protector. 

4. May thy rising star enlighten the world. 

And the falling stars of thine enemies be ex- 

5. May every act of thine prosper. 

And may every year and every day be to thee 
Spring-time. ' ' 

In the Industrial Museum at Berlin there is a rug 
with this inscription : ' * There is no Deity but God, 
and Mahomet is His Prophet." 

On a Persian silk rug is a line from the Koran : 
*' All perisheth but His face. " 

Another rug has : *'God is greatest ! He is great !** 

Often a marking in a comer of a rug is simply the 
name of the maker, and the date. 

Miscellaneous Information ^^^ 

A wonderful rug in the South Kensington Museum 
has this inscription: 

* * I have no other than thy threshold, 
My head has no other protection than this 

porchway ! 
The work of the slave of this HOLY PLACE, 

MaKand of Kasban, 

In the year 946." 
This date corresponds to a. d. 1 568. The rug is 
beautiful in color and design, and has about three 
hundred and eighty-nine hand-tied knots to the square 

Oriental Symbols 

All Oriental rugs have designs, and every design 
is symbolical. To the connoisseur, as well as to the 
owners of rugs, it is vastly interesting to understand 
the meaning attached to these symbols by the Orien- 
tals. Everyone is familiar with the tree design in 
some of its various forms, and with the stiff little 
birds and the many odd and strange looking animals 
which frequently are seen on an Eastern fabric of the 
loom. Yet each unique figure has a meaning, and it is 
a fascinating, as well as an apparently endless task, to 
find the hidden significance of these symbols. If one 

122 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

go no further, he should at least become familiar with 
the designs on his own rugs, and know, if possible, 
what they typify. 

The rug itself symbolizes Eternity and Space, and 
the filling or plan is the symbol of the World — beau- 
tiful, but fleeting and limited. 

Chinese Symbols 

Bat Happiness. 

Buddhist Sceptre - - - Success in literary labors. 
Chi-lin (a kind of doe) - Nobleness, gentleness. 

Cock and hen on an art- 


ificial rock-work - - Pleasures of country life. 

Crane Immortality. 

Crow Evil. 

Deer Official emolument 

Dragon The imperial emblem, sig- 
nifying increase and im- 
perial grandeur. 

Dragon with five claws on 

each of its four feet - Exclusive Emblem of the 


Dragon and Phoenix - - Newly wedded pair. 

Duck Conjugal affection. 

Turkish Loom and Weavers 

Miscellaneous Information ^^3 

Goose Domestic felicity. 

Gourd Happiness. 

Lion Victory. 

Magpie Good luck. 

Old man leaning on a staff Long life. 

Owl Dread. 

Peach Old age. 

Phoenix Emblem of the Empress. 

Stork Long life. 

Tortoise Long life. 

Tree of Life with seven 

branches on a short 

stem Seven days of Creation. 

Young stags - - . - Long life. 

Egyptian Symbols 

Asps Intelligence. 

Bat with a ring in its claws Duration. 

Bee Immortality. 

Beetle Earthly life and the devel- 
opment of man in the 
future state. 

Blossom Life. 

Boat Serene spirit gliding upon 

the waters. 

1^4 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Bull ---..-- Source of life. 

Butterfly SouL 

Cartouche Eternity. 

Crescent Celestial virgin. 

Crocodile Beneficent Deity. 

Dove ------- Love, mourning of a widow. 

Eagle Creation, preservation, de- 
struction, power. 

Egg Life. 

Eye of Osiris - - - - Eye of the eternal judge 

over all. 

Feather of an ostrich - - Truth, justice. (The ostrich 

itself does not appear in 
Egyptian art) 

Feathers of rare birds - Sovereignty. 

Frog Renewed birth. 

Hawk Power. 

Ibis Usefulness, the heart 

Lizard - Divine wisdom. 

Lotus The Sun, creation, resur- 

Nile Key Life. 

Palm tree ----- Immortality, longevity. 

Papyrus Food for mind and body, 

Pine cone Fire. 

Pomegranate - - . - Life. 

Miscellaneous Information 


Rosette A lotus motive. 

Sail of a vessel - - - Breath; the belief that the 

soul is inactive and worth- 
less until revived by the 
breath of the mind. 

Scarabaeus ----- Immortality, resurrection, 

emblem of a ruling prov- 

Solar disk with serpents Royalty. 

Sphinx Beneficent Being. 

Staff in the hands of the 

gods ----- 3 Purity. 

Sun ------- Deity, life. 

Viper- ------ Power. 

Wheel Deity. 

Zigzag ------ Water. 

Indian Symbols 

Ass ------- Humility, austerity. 

Banian or Burr tree - - Deity (because of its out- 
stretched branches and 
overshadowing benefi- 

Butterfly ------ Beneficence of Summer. 

126 Riigs: Oriental and Occidental 

Filfot cross of Buddhism Auspiciousness. 

Knot and flower design Divine bounty and power. 

Selrpent Desire. 

Japanese Symbols 

Pine trees Long Life. 

Storks Long Life. 

Tortoises Long Life. 

Persian Symbols 

Descending Eagle - - Bad Luck. 

Eagle Light, height 

Flying Eagle - - - - Good luck. 

Hounds Fame, ever increasing 


Leopards - - - - Fame, ever increasing 


Lion Power. 

Peacock ------ Fire, light 

Phoenix Immortality. 

Standing Eagle - - - Good luck. 

Sun Light 

Sword Force. 

Miscellaneous Information ^^7 

Tree of health - - - - Immortality. 

Tree of life Knowledge, truth. 

The Coat of Arms of Persia is the Lion holding a 
sword in his paw, and with the Sun at his back. 

Turkish Symbols 

Crescent Increasing power. 

The Turkish Coat of Arms is the Crescent and the 
Star. These heavenly bodies are supposed to signify 

Miscellaneous Symbols 

Anemone Good fortune. 

Bat - Maternity. 

Bird Spirit. 

Boar ------- Winter. 

Butterfly ^Ethereal soul. 

Circle Eternity, perpetual con- 

Cypress tree - - - - Tree of life, immortality, 

perfect and renewed life. 

Dog ------- Destruction, vigilance. 

Elephant Patient endurance, self- 

128 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Evergreens ----- Immortality. 

Fir cone ------ An existence terminated but 

united — the union of the 
tribes against the do- 
minion of Rome. 

Fly ------- Destroying attribute. 

Hare ------- Fertility. 

Heart ------ Man morally. 

Hippopotamus - - - - Destroying power. 

Hog - - Deep meditation. 

Jug------- Knowledge. 

Lily Purity. 

Olive - Consecration to immortality. 

Owl ------- Wisdom. 

Ox Patience, gentleness. 

Peacock ------ Resurrection (because of 

the annual renewing of its 
plumage, and from a be- 
lief in the incorruptibility 
of its flesh). 

Phoenix - Good luck, herald of pros- 
perity, birth of great men. 

Pig .-----. Universal kindness. 

Ram ------- Spiritual leadership. 

Reed ------- Sign of royalty. 

Rhinoceros Religious recluse. 

Vats i\ wnicii Wooi, is Washed and Dykd — Turkey 

Miscellaneous Information ^^9 

Scorpion Invincible knowledge. 

Serpent Life, immortality. 

Spear Destructive power. 

Spider Slave of Passion. 

Squirrel Averter of evil. 

Turtle - - - - - Constancy. 

Wheel Universe. 

Wings Spontaneous motion. 

Wolf Destroying power. 

Meaning of Some of the Place-Names 

Associated with Rugs 

Akhissar White Citadel. 

Bagdad Abode of Peace. 

Baku Place of Winds. 

Beluchistan ----- Land of the Beluches. 

Bhagulpore ----- Tiger City. 

Bokhara ------ Treasury of Sciences — ^The 

Deccan ------ The South Land. 

Derbent ------ Fortified Gate. 

Pars ------- Land of the Farsi, or 

Fu-Chau ----- Happy City. 

I30 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Gilan ------ The Marshes. 

Gulistan ------ The Rose Garden. 

Haidarabad - - - - Gate of Salvation. 

Herat ----- - The Pearl of Khorassan — 

The Gate of India. 

Islamabad ----- Abode of Islam. 

Ispahan ------ Place of Horses. 

Jerusalem ----- Heir of Peace. 

Kandahar ----- Key of India. 

Karabagh ----- Country of the Sun. 

Karadagh Black Mountains. 

Kelat Castle. 

Kwatah Citadel. 

Mecca --.--- The Heart of Islam — ^The 

Holy City. 

Mirzapore ----- City of the Emir. 

Ning-po Peaceful Wave. 

Peshawar Advanced Fortress. 

Samarkand The Head of Islam. 

Shang-hai Approaching the Sea. 

Srinagar ----- City of the Sun. 

Tabriz ------ Pinnacle of Islam. 

Teheran ----- The Pure. 

Yezd ------ City of Light — City of 


Miscellaneous Information 131 

Geographical Data 

' Owing to the variety of ways in which the names of 
Oriental localities are spelled when transliterated, it is 
extremely difficult to establish a standard of spelling. 
Many curious examples of this occur both on maps and 
in dictionaries. It is certainly confusing to open an 
atlas that is supposed to be an authority, and find that 
the name one seeks differs in spelling from that used in 
the atlas first consulted. Then by looking into dic- 
tionaries it is found that each of these has a different 
way of spelling the word sought Then turning to a 
g^ide book of the country there will probably be found 
not only another combination of the letters, but also a 
conflict between the descriptive matter in the book and 
the map accompanying it If books of travel are con- 
sulted, the embarrassmejit is still further increased. 

After having accepted a mode of spelling geographi- 
cal names for use in this volume, I propose in the pages 
that follow to assist the reader to locate the places men- 
tioned, by assigning them to their respective countries, 
so that at a glance he may identify them. This classifi- 
cation will also be a key to the map that follows. 

^32 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Occasionally the name of a place has been inserted 
which is not rug-producing, but only a mart for the 
selling of rugs. This has seemed advisable as the 
names are intimately associated with the rug industry. 







Ghazni (Gazne). 

Kabul (Cabul, Cabool). 






Bagh (Bhag). 






Jhalawan (District). 

Sarawan (District). 




Rustam Khan. 







Indian Loom and Weavers 

Miscellaneous Information 





















Ambala (Umballa). 


Bahadapur (District). 






Bhagalpur (Boglipoor). 






Deccan (Dekkan-peninsula). 




Gorakhpur (Gorukpore). 

Haidarabad (Hyderabad). 

Jabalpur (Jubbulpore-Jub- 

Jaipur (Jeypore). 
Jalandhar (JuUinder). 

134 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Jammu (Jamu). 




Kashmir (State, British 



North Arcot (District). 






Poona (Pooneh). 







Malabar (District). 



Srinagar (Serinuggar). 











Aaragh (province, written Astrabad. 

Irak on maps). Azerbaijan (Province), 

Ardebal (District). Biblkabad. 

Ardebil. Bijar. 

Miscellaneous Information 



Kurkistan (the Persian 






Laristan (Province). 


Luristan (Province). 

Pars (Province Farsis- 

Makran (Mekran, District). 





Ghilan (Gilan). 




Irak-Ajemi (Province). 


Ispahan (Market only). 


Kain (Ghain, Ghayn). 




Karadagh (District). 


Kermanshah (Kerman- 








Khorassan (Khorasan, 




Khuzistan (Ancient 

Tabriz (Tabriez). 

Susiana, Province). 

Teheran (Market only). 





136 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 


Astrakhan. Erivan. 

Baku. Kars. 

Batum. Kazan. 

Daghestan (Government). Shushu. 

Caucasia - ^ Derbent Transcaucasia^ 



' Karabagh. 

Bokhara. Khiva. 

Ferghana (Province). Kokand (Khokand). 

Hissar. Samarkand. 


Arabia. Kurdistan. 

Armenia. Mesopotamia. 

Asia Minor or Anatolia. Syria. 


AND Towns 



Adiaman (Adiyemen). 




Miscellaneous Information 




Anatolia (District). 


Bagdad (Baghdad), ship- 
ping port. 



Bergama (Bergamo, Per- 

Brusa (Broussa). 







Ghiordes (Cordis, Qourdes, 
Gurdiz, ancient Gordus). 








Kaisarieh (Caesarea). 







Kulah (Koula, Coula). 

Kutahia (Kutai, Kutayah). 


Marash (Maresh). 



Milassa (Melasso, Mylasso). 

Mosul (Moussul). 


Ouchak (Ushak, Oushak). 


Sharjah (Sharkah, Sharjah). 



Smyrna (Mart only). 



Urfa (Oorfa). 

Zileh (Zilleh, Zeli). 

13S Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 


Cairo (Mart). 

Kairwan (the only place 
where the genuine 
Tunisian rugs are now 













Aaragh, Persia. Agra, India. 

Adana, Turkey in Asia. Agrinion, Greece. 
Adiaman, Turkey in Asia. Ahmedabad, India. 
Afium-Kara-hissar, Turkey Aidin, Turkey in Asia, 
in Asia. Aitsi-Ken, Japan. 

Miscellaneous Information 


Akhissar, Turkey in Asia. 
Akshehr, Turkey in Asia. 
Allahabad, India. 
Alleppi, India. 
Aleppo, Turkey in Asia. 
Altun, Turkey in Asia. 
Amabala, India. 
Amirtsar, India. 

Anatolia, Turkey in Asia. 
Ardebal, Persia. 
Ardebil, Persia. 
Asium, Turkey in Asia. 
Astrabad, Persia. 
Astrakan, Russia in Asia. 
Aubusson, France. 
Azerbaijan, Persia. 


Bagdad, Turkey in Asia. 
Bagh, Beluchistan. 
Bahadapur, India. 
Baku, Russia in Asia. 
Baikh, Afghanistan. 
Bangalore, India. 
Bard wan, India. 
Batum, Russia in Asia. 
Beauvais, France. 
Behesne, Turkey in Asia. 
Beirut, Turkey in Asia. 
Belar, Beluchistan. 
Bellary, India. 
Benares, India. 

Bergama, Turkey in Asia. 
Beypur, India. 
Bijapur, India. 
Bijar, Persia. 
Bhagalpur, India. 
Bibikabad, Persia. 
Birjand, Persia. 
Bokhara, Central Asia. 
Bombay, India. 
Brusa, Turkey in Asia. 
Bujnurd, Persia. 
Burujird, Persia. 
Bushire, Persia. 

I40 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Cairo, Egypt. Cawnpur, India. 

Calcutta, India. Chanda, India. 

Canton, Chinese Empire. Charikar, Afghanistan. 


Daghestan, Russia in Asia. Demirdji, Turkey in Asia. 

Deccan, India. Derbent, Russia in Asia. 

Delhi, India. Diabekir, Turkey in Asia. 


El-Hosn, Turkey in Asia. Erivan, Russia in Asia. 
Ellore, India. Erzerum, Turkey in 

Enzeli, Persia. 

Fakeh, Turkey in Asia. Feraghan, Persia. 

Pars, Persia. Fu-chan, Chinese Empire. 

Gemerik, Turkey in Asia. Goa, India. 

Ghazni, Afghanistan. Gorakhpur, India. 

Ghilan, Persia. Gulistan, Afghanistan. 

Ghiordes, Turkey in Asia. Gundava, Beluchistan, 


Rui 1.)esi(;.\ers in India 

Miscellaneous Information 



Haidamoor» Turkey in Asia. Hayzoor, Turkey in Asia. 
Haidarabad, India. Herat, Afghanistan. 

Hakkam, Turkey in Asia. Herez, Turkey in Asia. 
Hamadam, Persia. Hissan, Central Asia. 

Hang-chau, Chinese Em- Hissar, Turkey in Asia, 
pire. Horns, Turkey in Asia. 


Irak-Ajemi, Persia. 
Ispahan, Persia. 

Istalif, Afghanistan. 

Jabalpur, India. 
Jaipur, India. 
Jalandhar, India. 
Jammu, India. 

Jelalabad, Afghanistan. 
Jerusalem, Turkey in Asia. 
Jhalawan, Beluchistan. 
Joohpur, India. 


Kabul, Afghanistan. Kandahar, Afghanistan. 

Kain, Persia. Karabagh, Russia in Asia. 

Kairwan, Africa. Karahissar, Turkey in Asia. 

Kaisarieh, Turkey in Asia. Karaman, Turkey in Asia. 

H2 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Karashar, East Turkestan. 
Kars, Russia in Asia. 
Kashan, Persia. 
Kashgan, East Turkestan. 
Kashmir, India, 
Kazan, Russia in Asia. 
Kelat, Beluchistan. 
Kerkuk, Turkey in Asia. 
Kermanshah, Persia. 
Khiva, Central Asia. 
Khonsar, Persia. 
Khora-mabad, Persia. 
Khorassan, Persia. 
Khorsabad, Turkey in Asia. 
Khozdar, Beluchistan. 
Khuzistan, Persia. 

Khyrpur, India. 
Kiang-su, Chinese Empire. 
Kioto, Japan. 
Kir man, Persia. 
Kir-Shehr, Turkey in Asia. 
Kohat, India. 
Kokand, Central Asia. 
Konieh, Turkey in Asia. 
Kotah, India. 
Kuba, Russia in Asia. 
Kucha, East Turkestan. 
Kulah, Turkey in Asia. 
Kurdistan, Persia. 
Kushmore, India. 
Kutahia, Turkey in Asia. 

Ladik, Turkey in Asia. 
Lahore, India. 
Lar, Persia. 

Laristan, Persia. 
Lucknow, India. 
Luristan, Persia. 


Makran, Persia. 
Malabar, India. 

Marash, Turkey in Asia. 
Mastung, Beluchistan. 

Miscellaneous Information 


Masulipatan, India. 
Mazandaran, Persia. 
Mecca, Turkey in Asia. 
Medina, Turkey in Asia. 
Mehran, Persia. 
Merut, India. 
Meshhed, Persia. 
Milassa, Turkey in Asia. 

Mirzapur, India. 
Misratah, Africa. 
Mosul, Turkey in Asia. 
Mujur, Turkey in Asia. 
Multan, India. 
Murshidabad, India. 
Mysore, India. 


Nagpur, India. Nishapur, Persia. 

Ning-po, Chinese Empire. North Arcot, India. 
Niriz, Persia. 


Ormarah, Beluchistan. Oustri-nan, Persia. 

Ouchak, Turkey in Asia. Owephissa, Greece. 

Patna, India. 
Peshawar, India. 

Quetta, Beluchistan. 

Poona, India. 


144 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Rachova, Greece. 
Rampur, India. 
Rangpur, India. 


Resht» Persia. 
Robat» Persia. 
Rustam Khan, Beluchistan. 

Safita, Turkey in Asia. 
Sakai, Japan. 
Samarkand, Central Asia. 
Sarakhs, Persia. 
Sarawan, Beluchistan. 
Savas, Turkey in Asia. 
Serampur, India. 
Shan-hai, Chinese Empire. 
Shan-tung, Chinese Empire. 
Sharjah, Turkey in Asia. 
Shemakha, Russia in Asia. 
Shikarpur, India. 
Shiraz, Persia. 
Shirvan, Turkey in Asia. 

Shirvan, Russia in Asia. 
Shirwan, Persia. 
Shusha, Russia in Asia. 
Shuster, Persia. 
Sinna, Persia. 
Sirab, Persia. 
Smyrna, Turkey in Asia. 
Sohar, Turkey in Asia. 
Sonmeani, Beluchistan. 
Srinagar, India. 
Su-chau, Chinese Empire. 
Sultanabad, Persia. 
Surat, India. 

Tabriz, Persia. 
Tajura, Africa. 

Tanjore, India. 
Teheran, Persia. 

Drvim; the Wc^ol AKiKk it has rekx Dy 


Miscellaneous Information H5 

Tient-sing, Chinese Em- Tripoli, Africa. 

pire. Tsi-nan, Chinese Empire. 

Tokio, Japan. Tsing-chau, Chinese Em- 
Tourcoing, France. pire. 

Tourney, France. Tsing-ning, Chinese Em- 
Trebizond, Turkey in Asia. pire. 

u w 

Urfa, Turkey in Asia. Warangal, India. 

Yarkand, East Turkestan. Yezd, Persia. 

Zarand, Persia. Zileh, Turkey in Asia. 

Zemi, Afghanistan. 


Allen, J. Rowelly; Early Christian Symbolism. 

American Journal of Archaeology. 

Ashenhurst, Thomas R. ; Design in Textile Fabrics. 

Auber, M. L. Abbe; Bible Myths. 

Babelon, Ernest; Manual of Oriental Antiquities. 

Ball, J. Dyer; Things Chinese. 

Birdwood, Sir George C. ; The Industrial Arts of India. 

Bishop, Mrs. Isabella L. Bird; Journeys in Persia and 

Bishop, Mrs. Isabella L. Bird; Unbeaten Tracks in Japan. 

Blackie, C. ; Dictionary of Place Names. 

Bonnick's Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought 

Brummer, Martin; Egypt, Three Essays on the His- 
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Budge, E. A. Wallis; The Mummy Badge. 

Century Atlas, The. 

Century Dictionary, The. 

Clarke, C. Purdon; Oriental Carpets. 

Constable's Hand Atlas of India. 

Coxon, Herbert; Oriental Carpets. 

h8 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Curson, Hon. George N.; Persia and the Persian 

Davis and Cobern ; Ancient Egypt 
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Dresser, Charles; Carpets. 
Edwards, Amelia; Third Lecture, Pharaohs, Fellahs, 

and Explorers. 
Elkins, Joseph D. D. ; Ancient Symbolism among the 

EUwanger, George; In Gold and Silver. 
EUwanger, George; The Story of My House. 
Ely, Talfourd ; Manual of Archaeology. 
Emmaus' Life in Ancient Egypt 
Evans, E. P. ; Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical 

Faber, George Stanley; Origin of Pagan Idolatry. 
Fergusson, James; Tree and Serpent Worship. 
Fusenbeth, F. C. , D. D. ; Emblems of Saints. 
Goodyear, William H. ; The Grammar of the Lotus. 
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Hulme, F. Edward; Symbolism in Christian Art 
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Ivl'iiS Wkwc. TkA\SVORTK 



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Knight, Richard Payne; The Symbolical Language 
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Landor, A. Henry Savage; In the Forbidden Land. 

Layard, Austen Henry; Discoveries in the Ruins of 

Layard, Austen Henry, Nineveh and Babylon. 

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Lenormant, Francois and Chevalier, Charles; Man- 
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Lessing, Julius; Oriental Carpets. 

Lubke, Wilhelm; History of Ancient Art 

Malcom, Sir John; History of Persia. 

Marvin, Charles; Merv, the Queen of the World. 

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Maspero, Gaston C. Charles; Dawn of Civilization. 

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Muntz, Eugene; A Short History of Tapestry. 

O'Dagree, H. Eugene; Les Symbols Antiques. 

O'Donvoan, Edmund; The Merv Oasis. 

Perrot, Georges and Chipiez, Charles; History of Art 
in Ancient Egypt 

Perrot, Georges and Chipiez, Charles; History of Art 
in Chaldaea and Assyria. 

I50 Rugs: Oriental and Occidental 

Petrie, William Matthews Flinders; Decorative Art. 

Petrie, William Matthews Flinders; Ten Years' Digging 
in Egypt 

Phillips, G. ; British Manufactured Industries. 

Racinet, M. A. ; L'Ornement Polychrome. 

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Redgrave's Manual of Design. 

Renouf, P. LePage; Religion of Ancient Egypt ' 

Riegl, Dr. Alois; Altorientalische Teppiche. 

Robinson, Vincent; Eastern Carpets. 

Ryan, Charles; Egyptian Art 

Sayce, Archibald Henry, L.L. D. ; Babylonians and 

Sculpture, Manual of; Paris. 

Sharpe, Samuel; Mythology and Egyptian Christianity. 

Shelley, G. E. ; Birds of Egypt 

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Smith's Religion of the Semites. 

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Charles G. W. Lock. 

Strickland, Agnes ; Lives of the Queens of England. 

Stuart, H. Villiers; Egypt after the War. 

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Thompson's Paper on Beast and Bird in Ancient Sym- 
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Vanbery, Arminius; History of Bokhara. 
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Watson, Dr. Forbes; The Textile Manufactures and 

Costumes of the People of India. 
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Ancient Symbol Worship. 
Westwood's Illumination. 

Wheeler, Samuel Green ; Persia and the Persians. 
Wilkinson, Sir J. Gardner; The Ancient Egyptians. 
Williams, S. Wells; The Middle Kingdom. 
Wilson, The Rev. Samuel Graham, M. A.; Persian 

Life and Customs. 
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the Greeks. 
Wyatt, M. Digby; Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth 

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of Art 











Abbas Shah, encourages rug-weaving, 

Abenakee Rug, character of, no. 

Aberbaijan, Herez rugs made in, 46. 

Adana,rugs from, woven at C£sarea,52. 

^schylus, mentions rugs, 6. 

Afghanistan, tribes from, originally wove 
Herat rugs, 45 ; plate and descrip- 
tion of rug from, 70; characteristics 
of rugs from, 70; rugs similar to 
Beluchistans, 72. 

Agra rugs, characteristic of, 66; fine 
specimens of, 66; Dhurries made 
at Agra, 6y. 

Akbar, Emperor, sent for Persian weav- 
ers, 63. 

Akhissar, quality of rugs woven at, 54. 

Albee, Mrs. Helen R., rugs made by, 

Alexander the Great, mention of, 39. 

Alizarin, color from Rubia, 29. 

Allahabad rugs, quality of, 66. 

America, does not appreciate Kurdish 
designs, 55. 

American rug importers are sponsors 
for Oriental rug-weaving, 24; firms 
send designs to India, 27; encourage 
industry in Persia, 43; established in 
Ouchak, 56; at Anuitsar, 66. 

Ames, Governor, description of Chinese 
rug owned by, 89. 

Anuitsar rugs, quality of, 66. 

Anatolian rugs, quality of, 54; rugs 
from Kutahia, 56; nomads weave 
Yuruks, 59; prayer rugs inferior 
quality of, 95 ; nomads weave 
Khilims, 99; plate and description 
of prayer rug from, 104. 

Angora Goat, wool of, 19. 

Aniline dye not desirable, 29. 

Animals, not permitted in designs by 
Mohammedanism, 27; used in 
Meshhed, 47; in modem Tabriz, 
50; Jaipur, 6y; Kashgar, 76; 
Kabistan, 79; in himting rugs, 96. 

Arabian rug, plate and description of, 


Arabic designs used in Kir-Shehr rugs, 


Arabs introduced rug- weaving into 

Europe, 104. 
Armenian quoted, 56. 
Armenians weave Turkish rugs, 52. 
Arrian mentions rugs, 6; speaks of 

Indigo, 30. 
Art Schools in Western Countries 

fiimish designs, 14. 
Ashkabad, Turkomans dye rugs at, 73* 



Assyria, rug- weaving introduced, 7. 
Assyrian color and design followed to- 
day, 7; in India, 64. 
Astrabad, felt rugs woven at, 97. 
Athenaeus mentions rugs, 6. 
Attrek, home of the Sharokhs, 63. 
Aubusson, important &ctory at, 106. 

Austria, Imperial house of, owns fine 
hunting rug, 96 ; fine rugs made 
in, 106. 

Average size of large rug, 28. 

Aylants make Karadagh rugs, 46. 

Azerbaijan, rugs from, 50. 


Babylon, date of fall of, 7 ; symbolism 

in color at, 32. 
Babylonian, color and design followed 

to-day in Orient, 7. 
Bakhshis rugs, characteristics of, 44. 
Barbarike exported indigo, 30. 
Bayer, F., quoted, 120, 
Beginning of rug manufacture, 7> 36. 
Beluchistan rugs, characterisdcs of, 72; 

similarity to Afghans, 72; design is 

geometrical, 72; coloring dark, 72; 

durability of, 72; sometimes sold as 

Bokharas, 72. 
Beni Hassan, testimony of, 4. 
Berea College, Kentucky; rugs made 

at, 113. 
Bergamo rugs, quality of, 54. 
Berlin Museum has unique hunting 

rug, 96. 
Best known American rug importers 

sponsors for Oriental rug-weaving, 

Bethlehem, coarse cloth woven at, 92. 
Bhawulpore, silk rugs woven at, 70. 
Biblical writers mention rugs, 6. 
Bibliography, 147. 
Biiar, rugs woven in, 4 1 . 

Biratori, people of, weave mats, 13. 
Birch, Dr. Samuel, quoted, 5. 
Bride's Rug, meaning of, 100. 
Birds in Meshhed designs, 46; in Kir- 
mans, 47. 
Bird wood. Sir George C, quoted, 12. 
Biijand rugs, characteristics of, 44. 
Bumjird rugs, woven at, 50. 
Bishop, Isabella Bird, quoted, 13. 
Bishop, Mrs., quoted, 88. 
Black, symbolic use of by Egyptians, 

32; used to outline other colors, 

32; symbol of vice, 33. 
Blue, symbol of truth, 32; and indigo 

symbol of sorrow, 32. 
Bokharas, Beluchs sometimes sold for, 

72; furnishes dye for Turkoman 

rugs, 73. 
Bombay, dhurries woven at, 67. 
Boston Museum has unique hunting 

rug, 96. 
Boulak, last &ctory for rugs in Egypt, 


Brussels, power loom used in, 14; 

produces fine rugs, 1 06. 
Buyer's defense, 22. 
Byzantine influence in Greece, 8. 



Cxsar receives Cleopatra, 6. 
Caesarea, much rug weaving done at, 

52; silk rugs woven at, 88. 
Cairo important mart for rugs, 38. 
Camel, use of hair from, 20; in 

Turkoman rugs, 73. 
Cauca^an rugs, characteristics of, 78. 
Carpets, identical with rugs, 3. 
Cawnpore, dhurries made at, 67. 
Chaldea, rug-weaving begun in, 7. 
Characteristics of Persian rugs, 44; of 

Turkish rugs, 54; of Turkoman 

rugs, 76; of Caucasian rugs, 78. 
Chehel Sitoon, description of great rug 

at, 70. 
Chichi, same as Tehechen, 8 1 . 
Chinese rugs, modem different from 

antique, 89; designs in hunting 

rugs, 96. 
Chinese rugs have antique designs, 90. 
Chinese fret, dragon and fishes in 

Kashgar rugs, 76; Samarkands, 77; 

symbolism, 1 24. 
Chinese green, where obtained, 30. 
Chinese, yellow royal color of, 33; 

character of Kashgar rugs, 76; in 

Samarkands, 77; first wove silk rugs, 

86; characteristics of rugs, 89; plate 

and description of antique wool rug, 

Chinese Thibet, wool produced in, 1 9. 

Christians weave Turkish rugs, 52. 

Circassians weave Turkish rugs, 52. 

Circular rugs found in China, 90. 

Classical writers refer to Tyrian pur- 
ple; 32. 

Cleopatra and Caesar, 6. 

Clive, Lord, care for an India rug, 65. 

Coccus Cacti produces cochineal dye, 

Cochineal used for dyeing, 29. 

Colbert fosters the rug industry in 
France, 105. 

Colonial Loom used for Onteora rug, 

Color, rug manufacture incentive for 
blending of, 3 ; used in Orient to-day 
follows ancient examples, 7; Orien- 
tals delight in subdued, 9; Persian 
rugs excel in, 26; aniline dye fades, 
2 9 ; three, from Rubia, 2 9 ; significance 
attached to, 32; in Ancient Tabriz 
rug superior, 50; Akhissar rugs are 
green and red, 54. 

Constantinople, mart for Turkish rugs, 
52; art of silk rug- weaving intro- 
duced into, 86; St. Sophia at, 93. 

Cost of a Persian rug, 17. 

Cotton used in India rug-weaving, 64; 
in Japan, 9 1 . 

Countries raismg Indigo plant, 30. 

Cypress tree in Jaipur designs, 67. 


Daghestan rugs, characteristics of, 78; 
plate and description of, 78; Soumaks 
resemble, 81. 

Damascus, few rugs woven at, 92. 
Daraksh, Birjand rugs made at, 44. 



,, Assymn and Babylonian ex- 
amples foUowed to-day, 7; at Nine- 
veh in palaces, 7; in Western Coun- 
tries furnished by Art Schools, 14; 
in Eastern rugs often spontaneous, 
26; Persian rugs excel in artistic, 26; 
generally floral, 26; number of, in 
antique Persian rugs, 27; recorded 
on a talim, 28; bold, show best on 
a large rug, 28; localities in Persia 
have characteristic, 41 ; differ in each 
Turkish district, 52; in Anatolian 
rugs varied, 54; in Bergamo's geo- 
metrical or floral Arabic origin, 54; 
in Kir-Shehr rugs, 55; animal, not 
permitted by Mahomet, 27; ftmilies 
and tribes have individual, 27; de- 
signs now sent from Occident to 
Orient, 27; rosettes and palmettes 
in Feraghans, 44; floral, 45, 46, 
48, 49, 50, 54, 67, 77; palm, 45, 
47, 48, 49, 80; Arabic designs in 
Kir-Shehr rugs, 55; Smyrna rugs 
have irregular, 59; in India rugs 
remind one of Peraa, 64; Lrfdiore 
rugs have Persian, 67; in Abenikee 
rugs of unique character, 1 1 1 ; har- 
mony of in Sabatos rug, 112; in 
Navajo rugs, 115; animals, 47, 50, 

67» 76, 795 Tree of Life, 47, 76; 

medallion deugn, 45, 46, 47, 48, 

66* 77 f geometrical figures, 54, 70, 

74, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81. 
Derbent rugs, characteristics of, 78; 

plate and description of^ 100. 
Definidon of rug, 3. 
<< Descriptions des Arts et Meders,'* 

Morris indebtedness to, io8. 
Deccan, rugs woven in, 13. 
Delhi, Dhurries woven at, 67. 
Dewsbury, power loom used in, 14. 
Dhurrie rugs, quality of, 67. 
Difficulty of transliteradon of Orientd 

proper names, 133. 
Districts, in Persia have individual de- 
signs, 5 1 ; in Turkey have individual 

designs, 52. 
Dupont introduced rug-weaving into 

France, 104. 
Durability of Beluchs, 72; of Khivas, 

76; of Soumaks, 80; of Sabatos, 

Durham, power loom used at, 1 4. 
Duty on rugs, how assessed in the 

United States, 42. 
Dye, Phcenidan purple, 6; kinds used, 

29; vegetable, used in Sabatos rugs, 


Edward III. invited Flemish weavers 

to England, 107. 
EUore, quality of rugs from, 67. 
Egypto-Chaldean forms in modem 

rugs, 7. 
Egypt, rock cut tombs of^ 4; ancient 

^S ^^» Si rug- weaving begun in, 7, 
37; decline of the art, 37; imports 
many rugs, 38; symbolism of, 125. 
Egyptians, care of, in weaving, 7; 
lovers of nature, 7; used hand 
loom similar to those in use now. 



II; principal colors used by, 32; 
leam to make mats, 37; use rugs 
for decoradon* 37; now make only 
coarse rugs, 37. 
Eleanora introduced rugs into England, 

England, rug-weaving introduced into, 

Esarhaddon, use of rugs by, 7. 
European firms send designs to India, 

28; located at Amritsar, 66. 
Export trade of Persia, doubtful value 

of, 41. 

Pars, women weavers in, invent de- 
signs, 26; rugs woven in, 41. 

Pelt rugs, characteristics of, 97. 

Peraghan, rugs woven in, 41; char- 
acteristics of rugs woven in, 44; 
plate and description of, 108. 

Firms with factories in India, 24. 

Flemish weavers brought to England, 

Floral designs in Persia, 26; in 
Hamadans, 45; Karadaghs, 46; 

Khorassans, 46; Sarabands, 48; 
Sarakhs, 48; Shiraz, 49; Sinna, 49; 
Tabriz, 50; Bergamo, 54; Ghior- 
des, 54; Jaipur, 67; Samarkands, 

France, rug-weaving introduced into, 
8, 105; silk- weaving introduced 
into, 86; indebtedness to Colbert,. 
105; to the Saracens, 105. 

Fresco at Thebes, 4. 

Genghis rugs, characteristics of, 76. 
Genghis, Khan invaded Central Asia, 


Geometrical figures used in Bergamos, 
54; in Afghans, 70; Tekk6 Turko- 
man, 74; Genghis, 76; Daghes- 
tans, 78; Derbent, 78; Kazak, 79; 
Shirvan, 80; Soumak, 81; Tehee- 
hen, 81. 

Geographical data, 131. 

German, Victories in Turkey, 13; fine 
rugs made by, 106. 

Ghilan produced fine quality of silk, 87. 

Ghileem same as Khilim, 99. 

Ghiordes, knot, 23; plate and descrip- 
tion of old prayer rug, 50; rugs 
characteristics o( 54; best piayer rugs 
fi'om Ghiordes, 95. 

Goats flourish in mountainous districts, 
53; hair of, woven into mohair, 
Smyrna rugs, 5 3 ; Paul* s Tent Cloth, 
53; Genghis rugs woven from hair 
of, 'jd. 

Gobelin's factory consolidated with la 
Savonnerie, 105. 

Gorevan rugs, characteristics of, 45. 

Grand Prix awarded to fine Persian 
rug, 25. 



Grant, Mrs. F. D., mention of, 66. 

Great Britun power loom used in, 14; 
produces many rugs, 107. 

Greece, rug weaving industry as an- 
cient as the nation, 104; rugs sel- 
dom exported, 104. 

Greeks reach perfection in rug-weav- 
uig» 7 ; corrupted by Byzantine in- 

fluence, 8; weave Turoah rugs, 52; 
learn silk rug- weaving, 86. 

Greens, sources of, 30; favorite with 
Persians, 32; symbol of knowledge 
of Most High, 33; sacred color in 
Turkey, 36; in Ouchak, 57. 

Guendje, another name for Genghis, 



Haidarabad, quality of, rugs, 67. 

Halifax, power loom used at, 14. 

Hamadan, plate and description of 
Camel Hair Mat from, 24; rugs 
woven in, 41 ; characteristics of, 45. 

Hand loom, oriental in its origin, 1 1 ; 
description of, 11. 

Hay, Mr., owner of Egyptian rug, 5. 

Hebron, rugs in mosque at, 8. 

Henry IV., rug- weaving introduced in- 
to France during the reign of, 105. 

Herat, weavers from setde in Khor- 
rassan, 70. 

Herat, weavers from, wove Biijand 
rugs, 44; characteristics of rup 
woven at, 45; popularity of rugs 
from, 63. 

Herez rugs, characteristics of, 46. 

Hindoo ideas found expression in 
India, 64. 

History and details of rug- weaving, 3. 

Holland, fine rugs made in, 106. 

Homer mentions rugs, 6. 

Horace mentions rugs, 6. 

Holy Land, character of rugs from, 92. 

Hunting rugs, characteristics of, 96. 


India, description ot loom used in 
western, 12; boys and men weave 
in, 1$; knotting in, 24; firms having 
ketones in, 24; designs sent to by 
American firms, 27; produces mad- 
der dye, 29; Indigofera tinctoria 
produces large amount of color, 3 1 ; 
exports rugs to Egypt, 38; date of 
beginning to manufacture rugs in, 
63; rugs not so popular as Persian, 
63; designs in, named after owners, 
64; Assyrian types in rugs from. 

64; Persian rugs more expensive 
than rugs from, 64; plate and des- 
cription of rug from, 64; Lord 
Clive's care for a rug from, 65; 
characteristics of rugs, 66; Sindhs 
least durable of rugs from, 69; silk 
rug- weaving introduced into, 86; 
symbolism of, 127. 

Indigo, much valued, 30; and black 
symbol of sorrow, 32. 

Industrial Museum at Berlin, inscrip- 
tion on rug at, 121. 



Inscriptions frequently used in Serapi 

rugs, 48; on rugs, 119. 
Invention of Spinning, legend of, 4. 
Irak-Ajemi, Kirman rugs made in, 47; 

Sinna rugs made in, 48. 

Iran, official name of Persia, 46. 
Ispahan, rugs woven at, 41; prayer 

rugs from, 94. 
Italy, rug- weaving introduced into, 8; 

silk rug- weaving introduced into, 86. 


Jaipur, quality of rugs, 67. 

Jalal-ud-Din, Mahomed, sent for Per- 
sian weavers, 63. 

Japan, people at Biratori weave mats, 
1 3 ; silk rug- weaving introduced into, 
86; character of rugs from, 91; Per- 

sian designs used in, 9 1 ; symbolism 

of, 128. 
Jewish legend invention of spinning, 4. 
Jails, Indian rugs manufactured in, 64; 

Agra rugs woven in, 66. 
Josephus mentions rugs, 6. 


Kabistan rugs, characteristics of, 79. 
Kabul, 19; rugs found at, 70. 
Karabagh rugs, characteristics of, 46, 


Karajadagh, principal rug-weaving dis- 
trict of Turkey, 52. 
Karaman, characteristics of rugs, 54. 
Karminian, woven by nomads, 99; 

character of, 99. 
Kashgar rugs, characteristics of, 76; 

Yarkand rugs similar to, 77. 
Kashmir, produces finest wool, 19; 

mention of famous rug from, 24; 

development of rug industry, 65; 

Soumaks are erroneously called, 8 1 . 
Kazak rugs, plate and description of, 

20; characteristics of, 79. 
Kelim, same as Khilim, 99. 
Kenya-Dania, shepherds of, use felt 

rugs, 97. 

Kermanshah rugs, characteristics of, 46. 

Kermes dye is a red, 30. 

Khilim, flat stitch in, 23; plate and des- 
cription of, 54; characteristics of, 
rugs, 99; popularity of, 100. 

Khiva rugs, characteristics of, 76. 

Khorassan, rugs woven at, 41 ; charac- 
teristics of rugs of, 46; plate and 
description of, 46; Meshhed rugs, 
47 ; weavers from Herat settle in, 70. 

Khorsabad, rug design in palace of, 7. 

Khotan, silk rugs exquisite quality of, 
87; felt rugs woven at, 97. 

Kidderminster power loom used at, 1 4. 

Kilim, same as Khilim, 99. 

Kis Khilims, sentiment in, 99. 

Kirman, rugs woven at, 41 ; Kerman- 
shah rugs woven in, 47; character- 
istics of, 47; plate and description 
of, 94. 



Kir-Shehr rags, characteristics of, 55. 
Knotting, 23; Indian, 24; in a Waran- 

gal rug, 69. 
Konieh rugs, characteristics of, 55. 
Koran forbids animal forms in deugns, 

27; law of prayer in, 94. 
Kotan-Daria, shepherds of^ use felt 

rugs, 97. 
Koyihjik, deugn in palace at, 7. 

Kulah rugs, characteristics of, 55. 

Kuba, Kabistan rugs woven at, 79. 

Kurdish weave of Karminian resemble 
prayer rugs, 99. 

Kurdistan, rugs woven in, 41 ; charac- 
teristics of rugs from, 47, 54. 

Kurds weave Turkish rugs, 52. 

Kutahia exports Anatolian rugs, 56. 

Ladik, characteristics of, rugs, 56. 

Lahore, characteristics of, rugs, 67. 

Localities arranged alphabetically, 138. 

Localities arranged geographically, 132. 

Laristan, rugs woven in, 47. 

La Savonnerie, factory at, 105; con- 
solidated with Gobelins, 105. 

Lobanou-Rostowsky Alexis, mention 
of, 24. 

Loom, exquisite work of, in Orient, 9; 
and its work, 1 1 ; description of, 
1 1 ; prinititive character of Smyrna, 
59; Navajo's imitate Orient, 115. 

Lourdes, established a factory in France, 

Lucan mentions rugs, 6. 

Lucknow, Dhurrie rugs woven at, 67. 


Madder dye ranks high, 29. 

Mahomet, followers of, use prayer 
rugs, 93. 

Map, 136. 

Marbles of Nineveh, 5. 

Marquand, Mr., fine French rug 
owned by, 106. 

Masulipatan, quality ot rugs fix>m, 67. 

Mats, Egyptians make, out of papy- 
rus, 36. 

Meaning of place-names associated with 
rugs, 131. 

Mecca rug, Shiraz rug often so-called, 

Medallion, design in Gorevans, 45; 
Hamadans, 45 ; Herats, 45 ; Herez, 
45; Kirmans, 46; Sarakhs, 47; 
Serapi, 47; Shiraz, 48; Haidara^ 
bad, 67; Samarkands, 77. 

Meles rugs, characteristics of, $6. 

Mersherski first made Polish rugs, 85. 

Merv, nomads of, weave Khilims, 99. 

Meshhed rugs woven at, 46; Turko- 
mans supply the markets at, 73. 

Mesopotamia, witness of, 4. 

Metellus mentions rugs, 6. 

Mysore, quality of, rugs, 68. 

Milassa manufactures Meles rugs, 56. 



Mir Saraband, fineness of quality of 

Mirzapur, quality of rugs from, 68. 

Miscellaneous information, 117. 

Miscellaneous symboUsm, 127. 

Mohammedan religion forbids repre- 
sentation of animal forms, 27; 
Shiah sect does not obey, 27; green 
sacred color of, 33; introduce rug- 
weaving into India, 63; mosque 
plan of, 93. 

Mohair rugs, made of goats' hair, 53, 
57; woven at Akhissar, 54. 

Moodj, quality of rugs, 68. 

Moorish rugs, resemble Smymas, 104; 

Navajos follow, 114. 
Morris, William, weave of rugs, 108; 

dyes used by, 108. 
Moslem women weave Ouchak rugs, 

Mosul, characteristics of rugs from, 56. 

Multan, characteristics of rugs, 68. 

Murex, Phoenician purple, 6. 

Museum in Austria, inscription on rug 

in, 120. 


Naamah, legend of, 4. 

Names given to rugs often misleading, 

Navajo rugs, character of, 114; 

plate and description of, 114; scarcity 

of, 116. 
New England hooked or rag rug, 

character of, 1 1 1 . 

Nineveh, marbles of, $; date of fall 

of, 7. 
Nomad weavers, 15; habits of, 16; 

wool for Ouchaks bought from, 57; 

of Anatolia weave Yuruks, 59; 

Afghans, 70; Turkoman rugs, 73; 

Kazaks, 79; Chichi nomads weave 

Tehechens, 80; weave Khilims, 99. 


Occidental, power loom is, 1 1 ; designs 
sent to the Orient, 27; rug- weaving 
particulars of, 103. 

Onteora rug, character of, 113. 

Orient follows ancient examples in 
color and design, 7; women are the 
rug- weavers in, 15; Occidental de- 
signs sent to, 27; Sharokh's weave 
rugs popular in, 63; use of Khilims 
in, 100. 

Oriental, hand-loom is, 1 1 ; descripdon 
of, II; in modern design not to 

depend on, 27; andque designs now 
rearranged, 29; colors, 32; rugs 
firmer than Polish, 88; Symbolism, 

Orientals engaged in rug-weaving in 
the United States, 9; delight in sub- 
dued colors, 9; best with soft dyes, 

Osiris, priests robed in white, 32. 

Ouchaks resemble Konieh rugs, 55; 
characteristics of, 57. 



Palestine produces no rugs of import- 
ance, 92. 

Palm used in Hamadans, 45; in 
Khorassans, 46; in Kurdistans, 47; 
in Sarabands, 48; Shiraz, 49; Sinna, 
50; Kazak, 80. 

Palmer, Mrs. Potter, mention of, 66. 

Patna rugs, quality of, 67. 

Paul's Tent Cloth, woven of goats 
hair, 53; how made, 53. 

Papyrus used by Egyptians to make 
mats, 36. 

Pashim wool, quality of, 19. 

Peacock throne, fine silk rug before, 87. 

Persia, Shiah sect in, 27; exports rugs 
to Egypt, 58; excellency in rug- 
weaving, 39; origin of art unknown, 
39; civilization in, 39; Abbas Shah 
encourages rug -weaving in, 39; 
decadence of the art, 40; revival of 
it, 40; important source of income 
in, 40; localities to which rug- weav- 
ing was restricted, 41; extension of 
industry in, 41 ; women of all classes 
weave, 41 ; export trade, value of, 
41; tribes from, wove Herat rugs, 
45; Iran official name of, 46; Em- 
peror Akbar sent for weavers to, 63; 
rugs from, more expensive than 
India, 64; art of silk rug-weaving 
Introduced into, 84; deugns from, 
<ropied at Caesarea, 88; dengns from, 
copied in Japan, 9 1 ; small embroid- 
ered rugs from, 94; Hunting rugs 
from, remarkable, 96; France intro- 
duces the art from, 105; symbolism 
of, 126. 

Persian, knot, 23; design in Jaipur 
and Lahore, rugs, 67. 

Persian rug, place of Tree of Life in, 
5 ; cost of, 17; number of stitches 
in, 2 1 ; excel in color and design, 
26; design generally floral, 26; in 
Pars women invent designs, 26; 
number of designs in, 27; plate and 
description of antique, 28; character 
of the finest, 39; demand for, in 
America, 43; value of, 51; charac- 
teristics of, 44; finer woven than 
Turkish, 52; more popular than In- 
dia, 62; plate and description of silk 
rug from, 86; cost of silk, 88. 

Persians dislike bright colors, 32; use 
of rugs by, 40; prefer small rugs, 40; 
use finest rugs for hangings, 41. 

Peshawar, 19. 

Philadelphia power loom used at, 14; 
growth of industry in, no. 

Phcenician Art, relation to Egyptian 
and Babylonian, 6; dye nude in, 6, 

Place-names associated with rugs, 
meaning of, 1 29. 

Plautus mentions rugs, 6. 

Pliny mentions rugs, 6; mentions In- 
digo, 30. 

Polish rugs, characteristics of, 85. 

Power loom. Occidental origin, 1 1 ; 
used chiefly in United States and 
Great Britain, 14. 

Prayer rugs, characteristics of, 93. 

Priests of Zena robed in white, 32. 

Principal colors of Ancient Egyptians, 



Punjab, Lahore, capital of, 67. 
Purpurin, color from Rubia, 29. 

Puflhrnina rugs, quality of, 69. 

Quality in rugs, 21. 


I Quaritch, Bemhard, quoted, 108. 


Ralph, Julian, quoted, 63. 

Red, produced from Rubia, 29; sym- 
bol for zeal, 32; truth, 33. 

Resht, silk rug- weaving at, 88. 

Rhamnus chlorophorus produces yel- 
low, 30. 

Rhamnus utilis produces yellow, 30. 

Rochdale, power loom used in, 1 4. 

Romans valued indigo for blue, 30. 

Rose, symbol of divine wisdom, 32. 

Rothschild, Baron Adolph, owns 
unique hunting rug, 96. 

Rothschild, Baron Nathaniel, inscrip- 
tion on rug owned by, 1 20. 

Rubia tinctorum makes madder dye, 

Rugs, utility of, 3; origin of need for, 
3; weaving of, began, 3; definition 
of, 3; identical virith carpets, 4; 
ancient Egyptian example, $; used 
as awnings and coverings by As- 
syrian kings, 7; Greek perfection in 
weaving, 7; used as decorations 
since the earliest times, 8; use of in 
modern fltes, 8; increasing demand 
for, 9 ; woven in Deccan, 1 3 ; wool 
used in, 19; from the Orient care- 
fully selected, 22; designs shown 
best in large, 28; average size of 

large, 28; virith aniline dyes fade, 
29; used for decoration in Egypt, 
37; £g7P^ ^^^ makes only coarse 
^^&» 37* ^c quality of, in Persia 
in ancient times, 39; important 
source of income in Persia, 40; 
universality of use of, in Persia, 40; 
Persians reach their prime, 40; 
used for decoration in Persia, 41; 
quality of, produced by foreign firms 
in Persia, 43; sources of Turkish 
r^g8» 52; how used in Turkey, 53; 
characteristics of Turkish rugs, 54; 
woven in Kashmir, 65; character- 
istics of India, 66; at palace of 
Chetel Sitoon, 70; character of 
Tekk6 Turkoman, 74; antiquity of 
Greek rugs, 103. 

Rug- weaving, Saracens learn, 8; in- 
troduced into Europe, 8; by Ori- 
entals in United States, 9 ; in Egypt, 
Persia, and Turkey, 35; excellency 
attained in Persia, 39; encouraged 
by Abbas Shah, 39; originally re- 
stricted in Persia, 41 ; extension of 
districts in modem Persia, 41; in 
the Occident, 102. 

Russia, Rubia grows wild in, 29. 

1 64 


Sabastos rag, chincter of, 1:2. 

Saddlebags, woven in Feraghan, 44. 

Safiron produces yellow, 30. 

Samarkand rugs, plate and description 
of, 38; characteristics of, 77; silk 
rugs from, 88. 

Sand, rug designs drawn in, 26. 

Saraband rugs, qualily of, 48. 

Saracens manufacture rugs, 8. 

Saracens introduced tapestry weaving 
into France, 105. 

Sarakhs, plate and description of, 32; 
characteristics of rugs, 48. 

Sardanapalus and the marbles of Nine- 
veh, 6; use of rugs by, 7. 

Sargon, use of rugs by, 7. 

Savalans, name given to Sultanabad 
rugs, 50. 

Scipio mentions rugs, 6. 

Scotland, power loom used in, 1 4. 

Se-Iing-She discovered art of weaving 
silk rugs, 86. 

Sennacherib, use of rugs by, 7. 

Serapi rugs, characterisdcs of, 48. 

Servia, Khilims woven in, 99. 

Seville, fine Moorish rugs at, 104. 

Sedentary weavers, 15. 

Sharokhs weave rugs popular in the 
Orient, 63. 

Shawls, art of weaving in Kashmir de- 
clines, 65. 

Sheep thrive in mountainous districts, 

Shemakha, correct name for Soumaks, 


Shiah sect in Persia, 27. 

Shiraz rugs, plate and descripdon o^ 

16; quality of, 48; often called 

Mecca rug, 49. 
Shirvan rugs, characterisdcs of, 80; 

Tehechens resemble, 80; Khilims 

woven at, 99. 
Shuster, rugs woven in, from earliest 

times, 39, 41. 
Sicily, rug- weaving introduced into, 8; 

silk rug- weaving introduced into, 86. 
Silk, used in Polish rugs, 85; raising of, 

a vast industry, 86. 
Silk rugs, woven by nomads, 70; 

characterisdcs of, 86; from Khotan, 

very superior, 87; small demand for, 

88; cost of, 88. 
Sindh rugs, quality of, 68. 
Sinna, knot, 23; plate and description 

of, 42; characterisdcs of rugs, 49; 

Khilims woven at, 99. 
Sivas, characterisdcs of, 58. 
Skins, preceded rugs, 3» 37. 
Smyrna, produces best madder dye, 

29; rugs woven of goat's hair, 53; 

trade in KLaraman rugs at, 54; mart 

for sale of inferior rugs, 58; Moorish 

rugs resemble those from, 104. 
Soumak, plate and descripdon of, 12; 

flat sdtch used in, 23; characterisdcs 

of, 81; should be called Shemakha, 

Spain, Saracens introduce rug-weaving 

into, 8; silk rug- weaving introduced 

into, 86; rug- weaving brought to 

America from, 114. 
Spinning, references to, 4; Jewish 

legend of, 4.